Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Background 


Disease Etiology
According to the Canadian Thoracic Society, “COPD is a respiratory disorder largely caused by smoking, and is characterized by progressive, partially reversible airway obstruction and lung hyperinflation, systemic manifestations, and increasing frequency and severity of exacerbations” (1). COPD includes the diagnoses of chronic obstructive bronchitis and emphysema, and many individuals have both conditions. Chronic bronchitis is a productive cough on most days of the

Continue Reading!

Login or signup to access PEN® content.

start free trial

Are you an existing member? Login here.