Click on the Practice Question to view the synthesis of the literature and the practice guidance or recommendation.
Q: Are there safety concerns for the ingestion of fish in women who are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breastfeeding related to mercury contamination?
Q: What interventions are effective in promoting initiation and continuation of breastfeeding in the primary care setting?
Q: What are the infant and maternal health outcomes associated with breastfeeding compared to infant formula feeding?
Q: What are the infant and maternal health outcomes associated with breastfeeding for six to 12 months or more compared to outcomes of infants and mothers who stop breastfeeding before six months?
Q: Is breastfeeding associated with a decreased risk of developing type 2 diabetes among parous women without a history of gestational diabetes?
Q: What are the benefits of breastfeeding on cancer prevention for the mother and infant?
Q: What are the nutritional needs of a mother who is pregnant and breastfeeding an older child?
Q: How does lactation affect a woman's requirement for vitamin/mineral supplementation?
Q: What are the omega-3 fatty acid needs for breastfeeding women?
Q: Do lactating women on vegetarian (lacto-ovo, lacto, and vegan) diets require vitamin B12 supplementation in amounts equal to or greater than the RDA?
Q: Can vitamin D content of breastmilk be increased by supplementing the mother with vitamin D as an alternative to administering vitamin D supplements to the infant?
Q: Do trans fatty acids (from hydrogenated omega-6 fatty acids) consumed by a lactating woman have adverse effects on her breastfed infant?
Q: Does the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of a breastfeeding woman's diet affect the total fat content and the CLA composition of her breastmilk?
Q: What herbal beverages/supplements are safe to take during pregnancy and lactation?
Q: Do herbs/herbal teas have an effect on breastmilk production?
Q: What is the impact of caffeine intake in pregnancy and lactation?
Q: What are the risks to the infant when the breastfeeding mother uses illicit drugs?
Q: What are the risks to the infant and the quality of breastmilk when breastfeeding mothers smoke cigarettes or use snuff?
Q: What are the risks to the infant when the breastfeeding mother consumes alcohol?
Q: Are there adverse effects of high protein diets (including protein powder supplements) in pregnant and lactating women?
Q: Are there any specific considerations with regard to the use of sugar alcohols as sweeteners in pregnancy/lactation?
Q: Are there any specific considerations with regard to the use of sweeteners (e.g. nonnutritive, artificial, sugar substitutes, intense, low calorie) in pregnancy/lactation?
Q: What are the recommendations for postpartum weight loss for lactating women?
The following Practice Questions are part of another Knowledge Pathway. These questions have been included in the Related Questions section of this Knowledge Pathway due to their relevancy to this topic area. Click on the practice question to view the synthesis of the literature and the practice guidance or recommendations.
Q: Are the Adequate Intakes (AIs) for alpha linolenic acid (ALA) adequate for vegetarian (lacto-ovo, lacto, and vegan) women who are pregnant and breastfeeding?
Q: Do infants born to vegetarian women (lacto-ovo, lacto, vegan), and who breastfeed their infant, require a vitamin B12 supplement?
Q: Does maternal fluoride supplementation during pregnancy and lactation (where community water supply does not contain recommended fluoride levels) impact the incidence of early childhood caries (ECC) in infancy and childhood?
Q: Are foodborne pathogens transmitted through breastmilk?
Q: What factors are associated with postpartum weight loss?
Q: Does a breastfeeding mother's diet contribute to infant colic?
Q: How effective are telephone interventions for improving nutrition outcomes in infants and new mothers (e.g. breastfeeding support, infant complementary feeding)?
Q: Are telephone interventions delivered by peers effective in achieving health behaviour change?