Nephrology - Kidney Stones

Summary of Recommendations and Evidence

[B] The following conclusions are supported by fair evidence:
Data from clinical trials in healthy adults suggests a low to moderate increased risk of kidney stones associated with calcium supplements, including calcium supplements combined with vitamin D. The data is dominated by a large clinical trial (Women's Health Initiative) in which healthy postmenopausal women who took calcium (1000 mg/day) and vitamin D (400 IU/day) supplements over a seven-year period showed an increased incidence
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