All

Select a term to view the definition:
  • α-1 antitrypsin

    Professional Description:

    A serine protease inhibitor present in blood that protects tissue from inflammatory cells enzymes, especially elastase.

  • Absence of lunula

    Professional Description:

    The absence of the pale arched area at the proximal portion of the nail plate.

  • Acanthosis nigricans

    Professional Description:

    An eruption of velvet warty benign growths and hyperpigmentation occurring in the skin of the axillae, neck, anogenital area, and groin. It may be associated with internal malignancy, endocrine disorders or obesity in adults. A benign type occurs in children.

  • Acceptable Daily Intake

    Professional Description:

    An ADI is "the amount of a food additive, corrected for body weight, that can be ingested daily over a lifetime without appreciable health risk". The ADI is determined by bodies such as HPFB, JECFA, or FDA and is generally 1% of the highest dose at which studies have demonstrated no harmful effects.

  • Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range

    Professional Description:

    A range of intakes for a particular energy source that is associated with a reduced risk of chronic disease while providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients. The AMDR of a macronutrient is expressed as a % of total energy intake because its requirement is not independent of other energy fuel sources or of the total energy requirement of the individual.

  • Acetaldehyde

    Professional Description:

    Acetaldehyde is an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol.

  • Acetic acid

    Professional Description:

    Acetic acid is a biochemical product of metabolism. It is also called ethanoic acid and is a carboxylic acid.

  • Acetylcholine

    Professional Description:

    Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that stimulates nerve transmission in the brain. It is derivative of choline and acetic acid.

  • Acid reflux

    Professional Description:

    Acid reflux is the backward flow of stomach acid and juices into the esophagus or throat, which may cause heartburn.

  • Actin

    Professional Description:

    A major contractile protein in muscle found in thin filaments.

  • Active Vitamin D Sterols

    Professional Description:

    includes 1,25(OH)2D3 (calcitriol) and 1-α derivatives (alfacalcidol).

  • Acute decompensated heart failure

    Professional Description:

    Acute decompensated heart failure is a clinical diagnosis which occurs when an individual experiences a rapid onset of heart failure symptoms (shortness of breath, fatigue, edema) that requires urgent medical attention, often resulting in visits to the emergency department and hospitalization.

  • Acute gastroenteritis

    Professional Description:

    Acute gastroenteritis is a diarrheal disease of rapid onset, with or without accompanying symptoms and signs, such as nausea, vomiting, fever, or abdominal pain.

  • Acute phase proteins

    Professional Description:

    Acute phase proteins are a class of proteins that are synthesized in the liver in response to inflammation. This response is called the acute phase reaction.

  • Ad libitum

    Professional Description:

    Ad libitum is a latin term that means as a person wishes.

  • Added salt

    Professional Description:

    Added salt refers to salt that is added during cooking or after preparation (at the table).

  • Adequate Intake

    Professional Description:

    Adequate Intake (AI) is the recommended average daily nutrient intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of apparently healthy people that are assumed to be adequate. It is used when the RDA cannot be determined.

  • Adiponectin

    Professional Description:

    Adiponectin is a protein hormone secreted by adipose tissue. It is involved in glucose regulation and fatty acid catabolism and plays a role in the suppression of metabolic derangements that may result in type 2 diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD).

  • Adiposity rebound

    Professional Description:

    Adiposity rebound is the increase in BMI that occurs after it reaches its lowest point, which is a normal pattern of growth that occurs in all children.

  • Adjusted Distribution

    Professional Description:

    The adjusted distribution represents the "distribution of usual nutrient intake" for the group and removes the day-to-day variability of intake within an individual.

  • Aeroallergen

    Professional Description:

    An aeroallergen is an allergen that is airborne. Aeroallergens usually cause symptoms because they are able to enter the body via the respiratory tract.

  • Aerobic exercise

    Professional Description:

    Aerobic exercise consists of rhythmic, repeated and continuous movements of the same large muscle groups for at least 10 minutes at a time. Examples include walking, biking, jogging, swimming, water aerobics and many sports.

  • Affect

    Professional Description:

    A psychological term for an observable expression of emotion.

  • Agility

    Professional Description:

    Agility is the ability to move and change position of the body and direction quickly and effectively while under control.

  • Airway surface liquid

    Professional Description:

    Airway surface liquid is the 10-30μM layer of fluid on the epithelial cells of the pulmonary tissue located at the interface between inspired air and the respiratory lining.

  • All rac alpha-tocopherol

    Professional Description:

    All rac (racemic) alpha-tocopherol is synthetic vitamin E.

  • Allele

    Professional Description:

    Allele is one of the variant forms of a gene at a particular location on a chromosome. Different alleles produce variation in inherited characteristics such as hair color or blood type. In an individual, one form of the allele (the dominant one) may be expressed more than another form (the recessive one).

  • Allergen

    Professional Description:

    An allergen is a special type of antigen that causes an IgE antibody response.

  • Allergen-specific IgE

    Professional Description:

    An allergen-specific IgE is an IgE antibody formed in response to a specifc allergen. These are the antibodies that are detected in allergy tests such as RAST and skin tests.

  • Allergic asthma

    Professional Description:

    Allergic asthma refers is asthma caused by immunological mechanisms.

  • Allergic disease

    Professional Description:

    Allergic disease is caused by exposure to specific antigens (allergens) in people who are sensitized to the antigens.

  • Allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis

    Professional Description:

    Allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a food-related gastrointestinal hypersensitivity disease involving IgE and/or non-IgE mechanisms. It can occur at any age, including in young infants. Weight loss or failure to thrive is typical for this disorder.

  • Allergic rhinitis

    Professional Description:

    Allergic rhinitis is an inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane induced by IgE antibody to specific allergens.

  • Allergic sensitization

    Professional Description:

    Allergic sensitization is the presence of IgE antibodies against environmental and/or food antigens.

  • Allergy

    Professional Description:

    An allergy is an inappropriate or exaggerated reaction of the immune system to substances that, in the majority of people, cause no symptoms. Symptoms of allergic disease may be caused by exposure of the skin to a chemical, of the respiratory system to particles of dust or pollen (or other substances), or of the stomach and intestines to a particular food. In its broadest sense, it is applied to all types of immunologically-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. Previously, the term was restricted to IgE-mediated hypersensitivity.

  • Alopecia

    Professional Description:

    Alopecia is a complete or partial loss or absence of hair.

  • Alopecia areata

    Professional Description:

    Alopecia areata is a condition of undetermined etiology characterized by non-scarring and circumscribed areas of baldness on the scalp, eyebrows and beard area which are usually asymmetric.

  • Alopecia totalis

    Professional Description:

    Alopecia totalis is a complete loss of scalp hair.

  • Alopecia universalis

    Professional Description:

    Alopecia universalis is the total loss of all body hair.

  • Alpha-tocopherol

    Professional Description:

    Alpha-tocopherol is the biologically active form of vitamin E. It has three asymmetric carbon atoms in the side chain, at positions 2, 8 and 12, each of which can be designated as "R" or "S". This formation leads to eight possible stereoisomers: RRR, RSR, RRS, RSS, SRR, SSR, SRS, and SSS. The naturally-occurring form of alpha-tocopherol is RRR-alpha-tocopherol. For the purposes of establishing requirements and recommended intakes, vitamin E is defined as the two R-stereoisomers of alpha-tocopherol (i.e. RRR, RSR, RRS and RSS).

  • Alpha-tocopherol equivalents

    Professional Description:

    Alpha-tocopherol equivalents (TE) are used in most nutrient databases to show the vitamin E content of foods. This unit incorrectly attributes vitamin E activity to tocopherols and tocotrienols other than alpha-tocopherol. The new RDA is for alpha-tocopherol only.

  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Professional Description:

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as Lou Gehrig''s disease, occurs in the motor tracts of the lateral columns and anterior horns of the spinal cord causing progressive muscular atrophy, increased reflexes, fibrillary twitching, and spastic irritability of muscles.

  • Anaphylactoid

    Professional Description:

    Anaphylactoid is a reaction with symptoms often indistinguishable from anaphylaxis in people in whom no evidence of IgE-mediated allergy can be demonstrated.

  • Anaphylaxis

    Professional Description:

    Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death. Signs and symptoms can occur within minutes of exposure to an allergen. In rarer cases, the time frame can vary up to several hours after exposure. The ways that these symptoms occur may vary from person to person and even from episode to episode in the same person. An anaphylactic reaction can involve any of the following symptoms: (skin) hives, swelling, itching, warmth, redness, rash, (respiratory)coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest pain/tightness, throat tightness, hoarse voice, nasal congestion or hay fever-like symptoms (runny, itchy nose and watery eyes, sneezing), trouble swallowing, (gastrointestinal) nausea, pain/cramps, vomiting, diarrhea, (cardiovascular) pale/blue colour, weak pulse, passing out, dizzy/lightheaded, shock, (other) anxiety, feeling of “impending doom”, headache, uterine cramps in females. These symptoms may appear alone or in any combination regardless of the triggering allergen.

  • anchor statement

    Professional Description:

    An anchor statement is intended to provide context to individuals by helping them understand the relationship between the caloric content of a menu item and the total amount of energy individuals should consume in one day.

  • Androgenic alopecia

    Professional Description:

    Androgenic alopecia is a gradual decrease of scalp hair due to a familial increased susceptibility of hair follicles to androgen secretion following puberty. This condition is referred to as male pattern baldness and female pattern baldness.

  • Angioedema

    Professional Description:

    Angioedema is swelling similar to urticaria (hives), but the swelling occurs beneath the skin instead of on the surface. Angioedema is characterized by deep swelling around the eyes and lips and sometimes of the hands and feet.

  • Antibody

    Professional Description:

    An antibody is a protein, also called an immunoglobulin (Ig), that is manufactured by lymphocytes to neutralize an antigen. Humans make five types of antibodies - IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG,and IgM.

  • Antigen

    Professional Description:

    An antigen is a substance that can trigger an immune response, resulting in production of an antibody as part of the body''s defense against infection and disease. Many antigens are foreign proteins (those not found naturally in the body). Bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms commonly contain many antigens, as do pollens, dust mites, molds, foods, and other substances.

  • Antigen presenting cell

    Professional Description:

    An antigen presenting cell is a white blood cell that engulfs and degrades foreign proteins and displays the individual molecules on surface receptors for recognition by T helper cells.

  • Antigen processing

    Professional Description:

    Antigen processing is the display of antigens on the surface of a macrophage that has engulfed and partially degraded them, a preconditioning for recognition and a protective response by T cells.

  • Antigenicity

    Professional Description:

    Antigenicity is the ability of an antigen to trigger an immune response.

  • Antigen-specific IgE

    Professional Description:

    Antigen-specifc IgE is an IgE antibody that is formed against a specific antigen.

  • Antioxidant

    Professional Description:

    An antioxidant is a natural compound found in foods that significantly decreases the adverse effects of reactive species, such as reactive oxygen and nitrogen, on normal physiological function in humans.

  • Apolipoprotein E epsilon4

    Professional Description:

    Apolipoprotein E epsilon4 is the only fully established susceptibility allele for Alzheimer''''s disease. It is an allele of apolipoprotein E, a mediator of plasma lipoprotein metabolism and is a known cardiovascular risk factor for elevated cholesterol, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and a suspected risk factor for dementia.

  • Apoptosis

    Professional Description:

    Apoptosis is programmed cell death.

  • Asthenospermia

    Professional Description:

    Asthenospermia is the loss or reduction of motility of the spermatozoa which is frequently associated with infertility.

  • Asthenozoospermia

    Professional Description:

    Asthenozoospermia is the loss or reduction of mobility of the spermatozoa which is frequently associated with infertility.

  • Asthma

    Professional Description:

    Asthma is a condition marked by recurrent episodes of breathing difficulty with wheezing due to spasmodic contraction of the bronchi.

  • Atopic dermatitis

    Professional Description:

    Atopic dermatitis, also called atopic eczema, chronic inflammatory skin disorder seen in individuals with a hereditary predisposition to a lowered cutaneous threshold to pruritus, often accompanied by allergic rhinitis, hay fever, and asthma, and principally characterized by extreme itching, leading to scratching and rubbing that in turn results in the typical lesions of eczema.

  • Atopic disease

    Professional Description:

    Atopic disease is a genetic predisposition toward the development of immediate (Type I) hypersensitivity reactions against common environmental allergens (atopic allergy). The most common clinical manifestations are allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy occurring less frequently.

  • Atopy

    Professional Description:

    Atopy is a personal or familial tendency to produce IgE antibodies in response allergens, and to develop typical symptoms such as asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis or eczema/dermatitis.

  • Autonomic symptoms

    Professional Description:

    Autonomic symptoms are symptoms manifested by activation of the autonomic nervous system: trembling, palpitations, sweating, anxiety, hunger, nausea and tingling.

  • Average Daily Intake

    Professional Description:

    Average Daily Intake refers to the average intake of a particular nutrient over time.

  • Average Requirement

    Professional Description:

    Average Requirement is the nutrient intake value that is estimated to meet the requirement defined by a specified indicator of adequacy in 50% of the individuals in a life stage and gender group. At this level of intake, the remaining 50% of the specified group would not meet their nutrient needs.

  • Baby Friendly Initiative

    Professional Description:

    an international program developed by WHO/UNICEF for the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding as a strategy aimed at increasing the health and well being of children and families

  • Bacterial lipopolysaccharides

    Professional Description:

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharides are a lipid and polysaccharide complex that forms the major component of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria, such as E.coli, salmonella, shigella and other enterobacteria. Lipopolysaccharides are endotoxins; heat-stable toxins that are released when the bacterial cell is disrupted.

  • Balance of cytokines

    Professional Description:

    Balance of cytokines is the relative quantities of specific cytokines in an immune response Commonly used in reference to Th1/Th2 cytokines and allergy.

  • Bariatric surgery

    Professional Description:

    Bariatric surgery is a branch of medicine that deals with the surgical treatment of obesity.

  • Basal energy expenditure

    Professional Description:

    Basal energy expenditure is the energy expended for respiration, circulation, brain activity and other vital body functions. It is measured in the resting condition, while fasting, free from stress and in a thermoneutral environment.

  • Basal metabolic rate

    Professional Description:

    The basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the energy needed to sustain the metabolic activities of cells and tissues, plus the energy needed to maintain blood circulation, respiration, and gastrointestinal and renal processing (i.e. the basal cost of living).

  • behavioural counselling techniques

    Professional Description:

    Behaviour counselling techniques are methods to change behaviour including self-monitoring of diet and physical activity (food and physical activity logs), cue elimination, stimulus control, goal setting, problem solving, action planning, modeling, limit setting, and rewards for reaching goals modifying specific eating behaviours (e.g. slowing the rate of eating, controlling where eating occurs, delaying gratification), and reinforcement management.

  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Professional Description:

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a progressive enlargement of the prostate due to hyperplasia of both glandular and stromal components. It typically begina in the fifth decade and sometimes causes obstructive or irritative symptoms or both; it does not evolve into cancer.

  • Betalactoglobulin

    Professional Description:

    Betalactoglobulin is one of the most abundant milk proteins and a significant milk allergen. Along with casein, it is one of the most frequently and intensively recognized protein by IgE antibodies.

  • Bifidobacterium

    Professional Description:

    Bifidobacterium is a genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria of the family Actinomycetaceae, order Actinomycetales. The organisms occur as irregularly staining rods of bifurcated Y and V forms and club or spatulate shapes.

  • Bioavailability

    Professional Description:

    Bioavailability is the proportion of an ingested nutrient that is absorbed and utilized. It can be influenced by the physiological state of an individual and the interaction of other nutrients consumed in diet.

  • Biofilm

    Professional Description:

    Biofilm is a thin layer of inorganic or organic microorganisms that adhere to the surface of a structure, together with the polymers that they secrete.

  • Bisphenol A

    Professional Description:

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used in the manufacture of epoxy resins for internal food can linings and polycarbonate plastics. It is a known endocrine disruptor.

  • Bitter Melon

    Professional Description:

    Bitter melon flourishes in India, Asia, South America, Africa and the Caribbean. The bitter melon plant is a vine with green leaves and yellow flowers and the fruit is oblong and green, resembling a cucumber. The extracts of the unripe fruit are most frequently used are the fruit and the seeds.

  • Body mass index

    Professional Description:

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is weight(kg)/height(m)2 (squared).

  • Bone mineral density

    Professional Description:

    Bone mineral density (BMD) is a measure of the amount of calcium in bones. A BMD test detects osteopenia (bone loss usually without symptoms and osteoporosis (more severe bone loss which may cause symptoms).

  • Borborygmi

    Professional Description:

    Borborygmi is a rumbling sound made by the movement of gas in the intestine.

  • Bovine lipase

    Professional Description:

    Bovine lipase is a bovine preparation offered as an alternative to porcine preparations for those who refuse the consumption of porcine products for religious or other reasons. The lipase activity of bovine preparations reaches approximately 25% that of porcine extracts, and consequently a substantially greater number of tablets may be required to achieve the same effect.

  • Brain infarct

    Professional Description:

    A brain infarct is tissue death in the brain due to a lack of oxygen.

  • Breastmilk substitute

    Professional Description:

    Any food that is being marketed or represented as a partial or total replacement for breastmilk, whether or not it is suitable for that purpose.

  • Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

    Professional Description:

    Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid is fluid obtained by washout of the epithelial lining fluid of the of the lung. It is used to assess biochemical and inflammatory changes in and effects of therapy on the interstitial lung tissue.

  • Bronchospasm

    Professional Description:

    A contraction of smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles, causing narrowing of the lumen.

  • Calcimimetics

    Professional Description:

    Drugs that mimic calcium and that are used to treat hyperparathyroidism.

  • Carotenoids

    Professional Description:

    Carotenoids are a family of pigmented compounds found in plants.

  • Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    Professional Description:

    Chlorella pyrenoidosa is a unicellular fresh water green alga rich in proteins, vitamins, and minerals.

  • Chromium

    Professional Description:

    An essential mineral required by the human body for normal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Chromium (Cr3+) is found in foods and supplements and is available in several forms.

  • Chromosome

    Professional Description:

    A structure of DNA and protein that is found in the cell nucleus. Each chromosome contains hundreds or thousands of the genes that form an individual''s hereditary blueprint. Chromosomes occur in pairs: one obtained from the mother; the other from the father, for a total of 23 pairs.

  • Client History

    Professional Description:

    (IDNT) Client history includes current and past information related to personal, medical, family and social history.

  • Coefficient of variation

    Professional Description:

    The coefficient of variation is the standard deviation of the requirement divided by the mean requirement (SD/Mean), and expressed as a percentage (CV=SD/Mean x 100). It is a term used to describe variability of observations in a population.

  • Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument

    Professional Description:

    The Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI)has a score range of 0 to 100 and provides quantitative assessment on attention, concentration, orientation, short-term memory, long-term memory, language abilities, visual construction, list-generating fluency, abstraction, and judgment.

  • Cognitive interviewing techniques

    Professional Description:

    Cognitive interviewing technique is a method to obtain informant perceptions about a topic or issue that involves asking informants to verbalize what comes to mind as they read/use a section of or an entire resource.

  • Cole criteria

    Professional Description:

    Cole criteria are BMI references using data from six countries. Cole, et al. drew centile curves that at age 18 years passed through the cut-off points of 25 and 30 kg/m2 for adult overweight and obesity. Children with a BMI of 25 or 30 at the extrapolated age of 18 were classified as overweight or obese, respectively.

  • Colony forming units

    Professional Description:

    Colony forming units are the number of bacteria in a given sample size that is viable (i.e. capable of initiating the development of a colony).

  • Color message

    Professional Description:

    A color message is the first part of a key message that provides context and perspective, followed by substantiating facts.

  • Commensal

    Professional Description:

    Commensal is an organism living on or within another, but not causing injury to the host.

  • Community-based interventions

    Professional Description:

    A community-based intervention is an intervention that is implemented within one or more community groups (ad hoc or formal), that promotes change through policy, social marketing, and/or environmental changes, and that targeted members of certain groups or community members at large.

  • Complementary feeding

    Professional Description:

    Complementary feeding is defined by the World Health Organization as "the transition from exclusive breastfeeding to family foods". Complementary feeding may also be referred to as weaning foods.

  • Computer-assisted dietary assessment

    Professional Description:

    A computer-assisted dietary assessment is when a health professional, practitioner or researcher utilizes a nutrient analysis program to calculate client-reported food intake which may be compared to recommended intakes (DRIs) and related to client personal, anthropometric and other data.

  • Computer-tailored information

    Professional Description:

    In computer-tailored information, personal dietary intakes can be compared with recommended intake levels (personal feedback), with the consumption patterns of peers (normative feedback) and with perceived risk behavior.

  • Conjunctivitis

    Professional Description:

    Conjuctivitis is the inflammation of the conjunctivae (membrane covering the front of the eye and lining of the eyelids) causing redness, swelling, and a watery discharge.

  • Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion

    Professional Description:

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion is a method of insulin delivery. Insulin is delivered by a microcomputer (pump) in very small amounts from a syringe reservoir through a thin tube (infusion set) that is connected to a needle or cannula which is inserted into the subcutaneous tissue. The pump is programmed to deliver a continuous infusion of basal insulin according to physiological needs and then programmed to deliver boluses of fast or rapid-acting insulin as needed to cover carbohydrate intake or to correct hyperglycemia.

  • Craniotabes

    Professional Description:

    Craniotabes is the softening of the skull.

  • C-reactive protein

    Professional Description:

    C-reactive protein is an acute phase reactant used as a marker for inflammation.

  • Cretan diet

    Professional Description:

    The Cretan diet originates from Crete, Greece and is characterized by a high content of cereals, vegetables, legumes, fruits and olive oil. Like the Mediterranean diet, it contains less meat and more fish than Western diets and moderate intakes of wine.

  • Cronbach's alpha

    Professional Description:

    Cronbach's alpha is used to assess reliability of a survey. An acceptable Cronbach alpha (reliability) for a psychometric scale is 0.70. However, criterion can be lower if there are fewer than 10 items and evidence of validity and sound theoretical and practical reasoning for use is given.

  • Cytokine

    Professional Description:

    Cytokines are non-antibody proteins released by one cell population on contact with a specific antigen. Cytokines act as intercellular mediators and trigger an immune response.

  • Deft Index

    Professional Description:

    Dmft or deft index is a count of decayed, missing or filled teeth with a maximum score of 20.

  • Dehydration

    Professional Description:

    Dehydration is the depletion in total body water content due to pathologic water losses, diminished water intake or a combination of both.

  • Development Coordination Disorder

    Professional Description:

    Development Coordination Disorder is associated commonly with difficulties in learning, behavior, and psychosocial adjustment, in addition to core deficits in motor function.

  • Diabetic ketoacidosis

    Professional Description:

    Diabetic ketoacidosis is a very serious condition which results in alterations in pH and electrolyte balance leading to acidosis and dehydration caused by a lack or relative deficiency of insulin.

  • Diarrhea

    Professional Description:

    Diarrhea is frequent and watery bowel movements; commonly qualified as the passage of three or more loose or watery stools/day.

  • Dietary fibre

    Professional Description:

    A collective term for a variety of plant substances that are resistant to digestion by human gastrointestinal enzymes.

  • Dietary Reference Intakes

    Professional Description:

    An "umbrella" term for four nutrient-based reference values that are used to assess and plan the diets of healthy people. The reference values include: the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), the Adequate Intake (AI) and the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). Relevant to U.S.A. and Canada only.

  • Dietary Reference Standards

    Professional Description:

    Dietary Reference Standards are nutrient intake values established as goals for individuals or groups for good nutrition and health.

  • Dietary status

    Professional Description:

    The condition of an individual or group as a result of food and nutrient intake. Dietary status also refers to the sum of dietary intake measurements for an individual or a group.

  • Dietitian

    Professional Description:

    A regulated dietitian has the following titles and credentials: Australia and New Zealand: Accredited Practising Dietitian (APD) Canada: Registered Dietitian (RD) in all provinces, except Quebec (P.Dt.) New Zealand: New Zealand Registered Dietitian (NZRD) United Kingdom: Registered Dietitian (RD) and HCPC Registered.

  • Disinhibition

    Professional Description:

    The tendency to overeat in response to different stimuli.

  • Distribution of observed intakes

    Professional Description:

    The distribution of observed intakes represents the variability of observed intakes in the population of interest.

  • Distribution of Requirements

    Professional Description:

    The distribution of requirements reflects the individual-to-individual (between person) variability in requirements. Variability exists because not all individuals in a group have the same requirements for a nutrient, even if they are similar in characteristics such as age and sex.

  • Distribution of usual intakes

    Professional Description:

    The distribution of usual intakes is the long-run average nutrient intakes of individuals in the population. The distribution should reflect only the individual-to-individual (between-person) variability in intakes. Statistical procedures may be used to adjust the distribution of observed intakes by partially removing the day-to-day variability in individual intakes, so the adjusted distribution more closely resembles a usual intake distribution. Sometimes referred to as the "usual intake distribution".

  • Dose-response assessment

    Professional Description:

    Dose-response assessment is the second step in a risk assessment in which the relationship between nutrient intake and adverse effect (in terms of incidence and/or severity of the effect) is determined.

  • Doubly-labelled water

    Professional Description:

    Doublly-labelled water is a form of indirect calorimetry where the average metabolic rate is measured over a period of time. This process is done by administering a dose of doubly-labelled water (water in which both the hydrogen and the oxygen have been partly or completely replaced with an uncommon isotope), then tracking the loss of deuterium and O-18 in the subject, over time, through the use of regular sampling of heavy isotope concentrations in the body water (by sampling saliva, urine, or blood).

  • Drug Identification Number

    Professional Description:

    Drug Identification Number is an eight-digit (8) numerical code assigned to each drug product marketed under or in accordance with the Food and Drugs Act and Food and Drug Regulations of Health Canada.

  • EAR cut-point method

    Professional Description:

    EAR cut-point method is used to determine the prevalence of inadequacy for a group or more specifically the proportion of a group with intakes below the EAR.

  • Effect size

    Professional Description:

    The effect size is the difference in outcomes between the intervention and control groups divided by the standard deviation.

  • Encopresis

    Professional Description:

    Encopresis or fecal incontinence occurs when stool (formed, semiformed, or liquid) seeps around the fecal mass and leaks out.

  • Endurance capacity

    Professional Description:

    Endurance capacity is the time to fatigue (or time to exhaustion) at a fixed exercise intensity or pace.

  • Enteric coated

    Professional Description:

    Enteric coated is being or possessing a coating designed to pass through the stomach unaltered and to disintegrate in the intestines.

  • Enterohepatic circulation

    Professional Description:

    Enterohepatic circulation is circulation between the liver and gastrointestinal tract.

  • Enteropathy

    Professional Description:

    Enteropathy is a disease of the intestinal tract.

  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Professional Description:

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)is a rapid immunochemical test that involves an enzyme and an antibody or antigen. ELISA tests are utilized to detect substances that have antigenic properties, primarily proteins.

  • Epididymis

    Professional Description:

    Epididymis is an elongated structure connected to the posterior surface of the testis that stores and matures spermatozoa and transports spermatozoa from the testis to ductus deferens (vas deferens).

  • Episode of care

    Professional Description:

    Episode of care is “a health problem from its first encounter with a health care provider through completion of the last encounter related to that problem”.

  • Epitope

    Professional Description:

    An epitope is a single antigenic site on a protein against which an antibody reacts. An eitope is composed of several amino acids in a sequence and configuration that elicits an immunological response and the production of antibodies designed to couple with that specific structure.

  • Erythropoiesis

    Professional Description:

    Erythropoiesis, also called erythroctopoiesis, is the production of red blood cells.

  • Estimated Average Requirement

    Professional Description:

    Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) is the nutrient intake value that is estimated to meet the requirement defined by a specified indicator of adequacy in 50% of the individuals in a life stage and gender group.

  • Estimated Energy Requirement

    Professional Description:

    Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) is the average dietary energy intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult of a defined age, gender, weight, height, and a level of physical activity that is consistent with good health.

  • Euvolemia

    Professional Description:

    Euvolemia is the presence of the proper amount of blood or fluid in the body.

  • Excitotoxins

    Professional Description:

    Excitotoxins are molecules that act as excitatory neurotransmitters, and can lead to neurotocity when taken in excess.

  • Exclusive breastfeeding

    Professional Description:

    Exclusive breatsfeeding is when no food or liquid other than breastmilk, not even water, is given to the infant from birth by the mother, health care provider, or family member/supporter.

  • Exogenous iron source

    Professional Description:

    An exogenous iron source is iron from dietary or supplementary sources.

  • Extensively hydrolyzed infant formula

    Professional Description:

    An extensively hydrolyzed infant formula is a formula in which the constituents, especially the proteins, have been hydrolyzed (“digested”) by enzymatic activity to yield single amino acids and small peptides to achieve a product that has few proteins capable of initiating an immunological response.

  • Factorial Method

    Professional Description:

    Factorial method is a way to measure total energy expenditure. The factorial method allows theoretical estimation of TEE using information for the amount of time spent in and energy spent for doing different activities in a theoretical 24-hour period.

  • Family-style meal

    Professional Description:

    A style of serving a meal which allows eaters to help themselves to portions from a common serving dish.

  • FAO

    Professional Description:

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

  • Feelers

    Professional Description:

    People who are appreciative and tend to make decisions based on personal and humanistic considerations.

  • Feingold Diet

    Professional Description:

    A diet based on the theory that many children are sensitive to dietary salicylates and artificially added colours, flavours and preservatives and that eliminating the offending substances from the diet could improve learning and behavioural problems.

  • FEP

    Professional Description:

    free erythrocyte protoporphyrin

  • First pass metabolism

    Professional Description:

    A phenomenon of drug metabolism where the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation.

  • Flagging

    Professional Description:

    the technique used to sell or bring extra attention to your key messages, helping the audience "take home" what you want them to remember from this interview.

  • Flavanols

    Professional Description:

    Procyanidins which can inhibit platelet function and low-density lipoprotein oxidation and increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Flavanols are found in chocolate, tea, red wine, beans, apricot, cherry, grape, peach, blackberry and apple.

  • Flavonoids

    Professional Description:

    Flavonoids, a subclass of polyphenols, are micronutrients derived from plants, primarily fruits and vegetables. Flavonoids can be divided on the basis of their structure into flavones, flavanols, flavonols and anthocyanins.

  • Flow-mediated dilation

    Professional Description:

    The most commonly used test for endothelial function ultrasound is used in to measure the percent change in brachial artery diameter after a substantial increase in blood flow is induced by vessel occlusion with a blood pressure cuff.

  • Focus groups

    Professional Description:

    A method of gathering in depth insights into a topic or issue through a structured, facilitated discussion of no more than eight participants

  • FODMAP

    Professional Description:

    FODMAP is an acronym for Fermentable Oligo-Di-Mono-saccharides And Polyols.

    Consumer Description:

    FODMAP is an acronym for Fermentable Oligo-Di-Mono-saccharides And Polyols.

  • Folic acid

    Professional Description:

    Vitamin of the B complex which is an essential component in many major metabolic reactions in the body. Folate is a form of folic acid.

  • Food and Nutrition Board

    Professional Description:

    The Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) is a unit of the Institute of Medicine, which is part of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in the United States.

  • Food Challenge Test

    Professional Description:

    Subjects consume the test food under controlled conditions and their response is monitored for onset of allergy symptoms. Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) The subject consumes the test food in a disguised form (usually a dried sample within a gelatin capsule), or a placebo (usually glucose powder within the same type of gelatin capsule) Neither the subject nor the supervisor of the test know the identity of the test food. A positive result is when the subject develops symptoms after consuming the test food, but not after the placebo. Single-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (SBPCFC) In most cases the test food is disguised within a stronger-tasting food to which the subject is not allergic, to disguise its taste and smell. The supervisor of the test is aware of the identity of the test food, but the subject is not. This test allows greater quantities of food to be consumed that is usual with the DBPCFC. Open food challenge The subject openly consumes

  • Food Disappearance Data

    Professional Description:

    Total amount of food available for domestic consumption. It is based on the residual after exports, industrial uses, seed and feed use; year-end inventories are subtracted from the sum of production, beginning inventories, and imports. Consumption estimates based on food disappearance are higher than actual consumption because spoilage and waste are not accounted for. Most appropriately used to track trends in consumption over time.

  • Food fortification

    Professional Description:

    The addition of one or more essential nutrients to a food, whether or not the nutrient is normally found in the food, for the purpose of preventing or correcting a demonstrated deficiency of the nutrient or nutrients in the population or specific sub-groups of the population.

  • Food jag

    Professional Description:

    A food jag is when a child will only eat one food item meal after meal.

  • Food Matrix

    Professional Description:

    The nutrient and non-nutrient components of foods and the molecular relationships (i.e. chemical bonds) to each other.

  • Forced expiratory volume

    Professional Description:

    The volume of air that can be forced out taking a deep breath, an important measure of pulmonary function. The forced expiratory volume in the first second is the FEV1

  • Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second

    Professional Description:

    The maximal volume of air exhaled during the first second of a forced expiration from a position of full inspiration; expressed in litres at body temperature and ambient pressure saturated with water vapour (BTPS).

  • Forced Vital Capacity

    Professional Description:

    The maximal volume of air exhaled with maximally forced effort from a maximal inspiration (i.e. vital vapacity performed with a maximally forced expiratory effort); expressed in litres at body temperature and ambient pressure saturated with water vapour (BTPS).

  • Formative evaluation

    Professional Description:

    Ongoing and continuous feedback to learners to facilitate their learning and progress through a program of learning.

  • frail older adults

    Professional Description:

    According to ESPEN guidelines, frail older adults are limited in their activities of daily living due to physical, mental, psychological and/or social impairments as well as recurrent disease. They suffer from multiple pathology, which seriously impairs their independence and are therefore in particular need of care and are vulnerable to complications.

  • Free Radicals

    Professional Description:

    Free radicals are compounds with an unpaired electron. Those present in the human body include the superoxide radical, the hydroxyl radical, the hydroperoxy radical, lipid radicals and lipid peroxy radicals.

  • full blood count

    Professional Description:

    Full blood count (FBC) or complete blood count (CBC) is a test requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood.

  • Full fluid diets

    Professional Description:

    Consists of clear fluids, fluid milk products and foods that liquefy at body temperature.

  • Functional anemia

    Professional Description:

    Functional anemia is a hemoglobin concentration that is within the normal range but that is lower than physiologically normal for an individual and therefore responds to supplementation with an increase. Functional anemia can be diagnosed only retrospectively after supplementation.

  • Functional fecal retention

    Professional Description:

    accumulation of fecal mass in the rectum, caused by repetitive attempts to avoid defecation because of fears associated with defecation. It is the most common cause of constipation and fecal soiling in children.

  • Functional fibre

    Professional Description:

    isolated, nondigestible carbohydrates that have beneficial physiological effects in humans.

  • Functional Food

    Professional Description:

    Whole, fortified, enriched or enhanced foods that provide health benefits beyond the provision of essential nutrients when they are consumed at efficacious levels as part of a varied diet on a regular basis.

  • Functional foods

    Professional Description:

    Foods and food components that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition. Examples may include conventional foods; fortified, enriched, or enhanced foods; and dietary supplements. Some functional foods provide essential nutrients beyond quantities necessary for normal maintenance, growth, and development, and/or provide other biologically active components that impart health benefits or desirable physiological effects.

  • Functional iron

    Professional Description:

    essential iron, involved in biochemical functions in the form of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and in enzymes, as well as a small amount transported attached to the protein transferrin.

  • Gastroesophageal reflux

    Professional Description:

    The passage of gastric contents into the esophagus. Most episodes are brief and asymptomatic and do not extend above the distal esophagus. GER is considered to be a normal physiologic process that occurs throughout the day in healthy infants, children, and adults.

  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Professional Description:

    Occurs when gastric contents reflux into the esophagus or oropharynx and produce symptoms including anorexia, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), odynophagia (painful swallowing), arching of the back during feedings, irritability, hematemesis, anemia or failure to thrive.

  • Gene

    Professional Description:

    The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA. Most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.

  • Gene expression

    Professional Description:

    The process of converting the information encoded in the DNA into RNA (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA); most genes are transcribed into mRNA and ultimately into a protein product.

  • Gene therapy

    Professional Description:

    The process of transferring a normal gene into an organism in order to replace or repair a malfunctioning gene; essentially changing the genetic makeup of an organism to improve its function.

  • Genome scans meta analysis

    Professional Description:

    The GSMA method is a way to analyze separate but similar experiments from different researchers that involves pooling the data and using the pooled data to test the effectiveness of the results.

  • Genotype

    Professional Description:

    All or part of the genetic constitution of an individual or group.

  • German Commission E

    Professional Description:

    The German Federal Health Agency established the German Commission E, a regulatory body that evaluates the safety and efficacy of herbs on the basis of clinical trials, cases, and other scientific literature. The German Commission E has published more than 320 monograms on herbs and the American Botanical Council has translated the monograms into English.

  • Gestational Hypertension

    Professional Description:

    when elevated blood pressure without proteinuria develops after 20 weeks of gestation and blood pressure returns to normal within 12 weeks after delivery. One fourth of women with gestational hypertension develop proteinuria and thus progress to pre-eclampsia.

  • Glossitis

    Professional Description:

    Glossitis is a condition where the tongue is swollen, has a smooth surface (normally it is covered by small bumps called papillae), and feels sore or tender. The colour of the tongue can be paler than usual or bright red. There are many possible causes of glossitis, including allergies, very dry mouth (as in Sjogren syndrome), infection or injuries to the tongue. Glossitis can affect the ability to chew, swallow and talk. It generally resolves once the underlying cause is addressed.

  • Glucocorticoid

    Professional Description:

    Any of a group of corticosteroids that are involved especially in carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism, that tend to increase liver glycogen and blood sugar by increasing gluconeogenesis, that are anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive, and that are used widely in medicine (as in the alleviation of the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis).

  • GLUT-4

    Professional Description:

    Isoform of glucose transporter that is found in the sarcolemma of muscle fibers.

  • Glycemic Load

    Professional Description:

    is a newer measure which is used to describe the potential response of a typical serving of carbohydrate (g) in a typical serving of food and the GI rating of that food. The GL reflects both the quantity (portion size) and the quality (Glycemic Index [GI] rating) of carbohydrate. GL = GI x grams of carbohydrate per serving of food/100 GL range for foods: Low: 10 or less Medium: 11-19 High: 20 or more

  • Glycogen

    Professional Description:

    A polymer of glucose used as a storage form of carbohydrate in the muscles and liver.

  • Goiter

    Professional Description:

    A goiter is an enlargement of the thyroid gland, which often results from insufficient intake of iodine and is usually accompanied by hypothyroidism. It is typically visible as a swelling of the anterior part of the neck. It can be associated with toxic symptoms and exophthalmos.

  • Granulocyte

    Professional Description:

    White blood cell with a lobed nucleus, characterized by numerous granules within its cytoplasm.

  • Greene Climacteric Scale

    Professional Description:

    A validated tool used to measure 21 menopausal symptoms on a scale from 0 to 3; no symptoms to extreme symptoms. It provides a numerical score based on somatic, vasomotor and psychological symptoms associated with menopause.

  • Growth Factor

    Professional Description:

    When extrapolating downwards from an EAR for B vitamins for adults to an EAR for children, an increment is added to account for the requirements for growth. The percentage additional B vitamins and choline required for growth in children and adolescents of a given age is similar to the percentage additional protein required for growth at the same age.

  • guaiac test

    Professional Description:

    A test that detects the presence of hidden (occult) blood in the stool. The stool guaiac is the most common form of Fecal Occult Blood test (FOBT) in use today. Brand names include: Hemoccult, Hemoccult SENSA, ColoScreen, ColoScreen-ES, Seracult, and Seracult Plus®. Laboratory procedures may vary. A small sample of the stool is placed on a special paper card, pad or wipe containing guaiac (a leuco-dye) then a chemical developer solution is put on top of the sample. If the card, pad, or cloth turns blue, there is blood in the stool and the stool is consider guaiac-positive.

  • Guided interview

    Professional Description:

    Sometimes referred to as cognitive interview techniques involve asking informants specifically about each aspect of a resource material and asking informants to verbalize what comes to mind as they read/use a resource. Use the findings from these interviews to revise drafts of nutrition education resources.

  • H. pylori infection

    Professional Description:

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a spiral-shaped bacterium that is found in the gastric mucous layer or adherent to the epithelial lining of the stomach.

  • H2 receptor antagonists

    Professional Description:

    These medications block the production of acid from the stomach

  • Half and half nails

    Professional Description:

    A division of the nail by a transverse line into a proximal dull white part and a distal pink/brown part.

  • Hazard Identification

    Professional Description:

    The first step in a risk assessment, which is concerned with the collection, organization, and evaluation of all information pertaining to the toxic properties of a nutrient.

  • Health literacy

    Professional Description:

    The ability to access and understand health information as well as use the information to improve health of self, family and community. The ability to read and write is not required to access and use health information.

  • Helminth parasites

    Professional Description:

    Worms classified as parasites and include roundworms (e.g. Trichinella), pinworms, tapeworms and flukes.

  • heme

    Professional Description:

    The deep red iron-containing prosthetic group C34H32N4O4Fe of hemoglobin and myoglobin that is a ferrous derivative of protoporphyrin and readily oxidizes to hematin or hemin -- called also protoheme

  • hemochromatosis

    Professional Description:

    An hereditary disease caused by increased absorption and excessive storage of iron in the tissues, especially the liver; the untreated disorder can lead to cirrhosis of the liver, heart disease, diabetes mellitus, testicular atrophy, and arthritis

  • Herbal products

    Professional Description:

    The word herb comes from the Latin word for grass. Technically, herbs are plants that wither each autumn, plants other than shrubs or trees. When used as a natural health product, herbs are plants with medicinal value.

  • Heritability

    Professional Description:

    The proportion of observed variation in a particular trait (as intelligence) that can be attributed to inherited genetic factors in contrast to environmental ones.

  • Herpes

    Professional Description:

    Herpes is a popular, ulcerative or vesicular eruption of skin or mucous membranes caused by a local infection with herpes virus 1 or 2 (herpes simplex) or by the reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus.

  • Herpes labialis

    Professional Description:

    Herpes labialis is herpes simplex that affects the lips and nose.

  • High intensity intermittent exercise

    Professional Description:

    Exercise that consists of alternating bouts of high and low intensity exercise. This type of exercise is seen in interval training and also “stop and go” type sports like soccer, hockey, football, basketball and rugby where fast sprints are interspersed with lower intensity phases.

  • high intensity physical activity

    Professional Description:

    High-intensity exercise is defined as working at about 75 to 85% or more of your maximum heart rate.

  • High risk for allergy

    Professional Description:

    An infant with a strong (biparental; parent, and sibling) family history of allergy; an infant with documented hereditary atopy risk (an affected parent or sibling).

  • Hirsutism

    Professional Description:

    The presence of excessive bodily and facial terminal hair, in a male pattern, especially in women. It typically occurs in adults as an expression of an ethnic characteristics or may develop in children or adults as the result of androgen excess due to tumors or drugs.

  • Histamine

    Professional Description:

    Histamine is a chemical present in cells throughout the body and is an essential neurotransmitter in a variety of processes. It is responsible for the release of gastric acid during digestion. Histamine is released during an allergic reaction and is one of the substances responsible for the symptoms of inflammation. It is the major reason for running of the nose, sneezing, and itching in allergic rhinitis. It also contributes to the narrowing of the bronchi (airways) in the lungs in asthma.

  • Homozygous

    Professional Description:

    Having the two genes at corresponding loci on homologous chromosomes identical for one or more loci.

  • Hooking

    Professional Description:

    the technique of hooking sets up a question that you want to be asked, leading the interviewer in a direction you want to go.

  • Hormone replacement therapy

    Professional Description:

    combined estrogen and progestin therapy or estrogen-only therapy (for women without an intact uterus).

  • Human Genome

    Professional Description:

    The complete genetic content (the complete set of genes) of a human.

  • hyerglucidic meal

    Professional Description:

    A mixed meal containing high glycemic index foods.

  • Hypercalciuria

    Professional Description:

    Clinically defined as urine calcium greater than 250 mg for 24 hours (6.2 mmol/day). Hypercalciuria is the most common abnormality associated with calcium oxalate stones.

  • Hyperemesis gravidarum

    Professional Description:

    Persistent vomiting that leads to weight loss greater than 5% of pre-pregnancy weight, with associated electrolyte imbalance and ketonuria, occurring in about 1% of pregnancies.

  • Hypersensitivity

    Professional Description:

    Presence of objectively reproducible symptoms or signs, initiated by exposure to a defined stimulus at a dose tolerated by normal subjects. Includes both immunologically and non-immunologically-mediated mechanisms

  • Hypertension

    Professional Description:

    Hypertension is abnormally high pressure in the arteries with a systolic pressure at rest that averages 140 mm Hg or more and/or a diastolic pressure at rest that averages 90 mm Hg or more.

  • Hypocitraturia

    Professional Description:

    A deficiency of the naturally occurring stone inhibitor citrate and clinically defined as urine citrate less than 450 mg for 24 hours (2.34 mmol/day). Following hypercalciuria, it is the second most common abnormality associated with calcium oxalate stone formation.

  • Hypodermoclysis

    Professional Description:

    Hypodermoclysis, also known as clysis, is the infusion of isotonic fluids into the subcutaneous space for rehydration or for the prevention of dehydration.

  • Hypoglycemia

    Professional Description:

    A state in which an individual has a low plasma glucose level (less than <4 mmol/L), experiences typical symptoms (trembling, palpitations, sweating, anxiety and/or neuroglycopenic symptoms- difficulty concentrating, confusion, weakness, dizziness, fatigue), and attains relief with the administration of a carbohydrate.

  • IgE Antibody

    Professional Description:

    A type of immunoglobulin. Levels of IgE antibody are elevated in individuals with atopic conditions such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. IgE antibodies are produced against specific allergens and determined by both genetic factors and exposure to allergens. Allergens will trigger an allergic response, in sensitized individuals, by attaching to IgE antibodies bound to mast cells. This results in mast cell release of inflammatory mediators, which trigger acute tissue inflammation.

  • IgE mediated

    Professional Description:

    Immunological hypersensitivity due to formation of excessive amounts of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in response to otherwise innocuous antigens (allergens) in the environment or in food. Immediate-type hypersensitivity, type 1 hypersensivity and allergic sensitivity can be synonymous

  • Immunoglobulin E

    Professional Description:

    Abbreviated IgE. A class of immunoglobulins that includes the antibodies elicited by an allergic substance (allergen). A person who has an allergy usually has elevated blood levels of IgE. IgE antibodies attack and engage the invading army of allergens

  • Immunoglobulins

    Professional Description:

    Immunoglobulins are proteins found in blood and in tissue fluids. Immunoglobulins make up gamma globulin; all antibodies are immunoglobulins. There are five classes (IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM) of immunoglobulins which differ in the structure of their polypeptide heavy chains. Immunoglobulins are produced by cells of the immune system called B-lymphocytes. Their function is to bind to substances in the body that are recognized as foreign antigens (often proteins on the surface of bacteria and viruses). This binding is a crucial event in the destruction of the microorganisms that bear the antigens. Immunoglobulins also play a central role in allergies when they bind to antigens that are not necessarily a threat to health and provoke an inflammatory reaction.

  • immunomodulation

    Professional Description:

    Adjustment of the immune response to a desired level

  • Immunomodulatory drug or agent;

    Professional Description:

    An agent that specifically or non-specifically augments or diminishes immune responses i.e. an adjuvant, immunostimulant, or immunosuppressant

  • Imputed

    Professional Description:

    (nutrient data), a process whereby missing nutrient data may be estimated using nutrient data from comparable similar foods (e.g. same biological plant family)

  • In vitro

    Professional Description:

    outside the living body and in an artificial environment

  • in vivo

    Professional Description:

    in the living body of a plant or animal; in a real-life situation

  • Inadequacy of Nutrient Intake

    Professional Description:

    Intake of a nutrient that fails to meet the individual's requirement for that nutrient.

  • Incidence

    Professional Description:

    The rate at which new diagnoses occur within a given population over a defined time period; a prospective measure of disease occurrence in a defined population.

  • Indicator of Adequacy

    Professional Description:

    "Indicators of adequacy" are criteria that can be used to determine a requirement for a nutrient. Examples include absence of clinical deficiency signs and symptoms; biochemical parameters reflecting the function or storage of the nutrient; circulating levels of a nutrient; etc. For each nutrient, different intakes are required to meet different indicators of adequacy. For example, more iron is needed to maintain iron stores (for which the indicator of adequacy would be a defined level of serum ferritin) than to prevent anemia (for which the indicator of adequacy would be a defined level of hemoglobin).

  • Indirect calorimetry

    Professional Description:

    Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production based on respiratory gas exchange.

  • Individual Requirement

    Professional Description:

    The lowest continuing intake level of a nutrient that, for a specified indicator of adequacy, will maintain a defined level of nutriture in an individual.

  • Infant dyschesia

    Professional Description:

    a condition that occurs during the first few months of life when an infant strains and screams during prolonged attempts to defecate, lasting for up to 20 minutes, until soft or liquid stools pass. This can occur several times a day. Symptoms resolve spontaneously in a few weeks.

  • influenza

    Professional Description:

    Influenza, commonly called the flu, is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses which can cause mild to severe illness, and at times can lead to death. Influenza usually starts with a cough, headache and chills; followed by fever, loss of appetite, muscle aches and fatigue, runny nose, sneezing, watery eyes and throat irritation. Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea are uncommon symptoms in adults but may occur in children.

  • Informed consent

    Professional Description:

    Informed consent means voluntarily agreeing to participate in something after having gained a thorough understanding of the risks and benefits that participation would involve.

  • INR Results

    Professional Description:

    Normal INR is 0.9 to 1.2; INR 2.0 - 3.0 is the therapeutic range maintained with warfarin; INR less than 2 is associated with minimal bleeding; INR 3 -4.5 is associated with excessive bleeding.

  • Insoluble Fibre

    Professional Description:

    Insoluble fibre is generally resistant to bacterial fermentation in the large bowel and thus increases stool bulk (e.g. wheat bran)

  • Insulin Analogue

    Professional Description:

    Insulin is primarily produced by recombinant DNA technology and is formulated as either chemically identical to human insulin or as a modification of human insulin (insulin analogue). This modification results in improved pharmacokinetics. There are currently insulin analogues for short-acting insulin (called rapid-acting insulins) and analogues for longer-acting insulins (basal insulins).

  • insulinemic index

    Professional Description:

    A measure of postprandial insulin rise.

  • Integrated Pest Management

    Professional Description:

    A process that combines biological, cultural, physical and chemical methods to manage pests so that the benefits of pest control are maximized while the risk to human health and the environment are minimized. IPM ensures that pesticides are only used when needed and that they are used responsibly as part of an overall pest management strategy (22).

  • Intense Sweeteners

    Professional Description:

    Intense sweeteners impart greater sweetness and contribute less energy than sugar. The term nutritive intense sweeteners usually refers to the sugar alcohols, which provide some carbohydrate and energy, but less than sugar. Non-nutritive intense sweeteners impart sweetness in extremely small quantities and deliver no energy or an insignificant amount of energy. Some of the intense sweeteners are also referred to as artificial sweeteners, while some are naturally occurring.

  • Intensive insulin therapy

    Professional Description:

    Multiple daily injections (MDI) consisting of intermediate or long-acting insulin, or extended insulin analogue as the "basal" insulin and fast-acting insulin or rapid-acting insulin analogue as the "bolus" insulin for food intake at each meal. This type of regimen also includes continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) or insulin pump therapy.

  • Interactive behaviour change technology

    Professional Description:

    computer based tools and systems to enhance behaviour change e.g. web-based behaviour change programs, CD-ROM interventions using touch screen kiosks, interactive voice response technologies (automated telephone disease management systems), personal digital assistants (PDA's) or other handheld devices, electronic medical records or registries that include behaviour change information.

  • Internal consistency

    Professional Description:

    The degree to which every test item measures the same concept in a measurement tool.

  • Internalization

    Professional Description:

    In psychology, internalization refers to the unconscious mental process whereby characteristics, beliefs, feelings, and attitudes of others are integrated into the self.

  • International Normalized Ratio

    Professional Description:

    International Normalized Ratio is the prothrombin time ratio that would be obtained if a standard reagent was used in a prothrombin time determination. The prothrombin time ratio is derived for a working reagent in the laboratory with the use of a parameter designated the international sensitivity index and is expressed as an individual’s prothrombin time divided by the mean of the prothrombin time reference interval.

  • Interstitial cystitis

    Professional Description:

    The accepted criteria for diagnosis of interstitial cystitis or painful bladder syndrome is the presence of pain related to the bladder, usually accompanied by frequency and urgency; and the absence of other diseases that could cause the symptoms.

  • Intolerance

    Professional Description:

    Commonly applied to non-immunologically-mediated hypersensitivity reactions An adverse food-induced reaction that does not involve the immune system. Lactose intolerance is an example.

  • Intravenous therapy

    Professional Description:

    Intravenous administration of Ringers lactate solution or normal saline at a rate of 20 mL/kg over 1 hour. Larger quantities or more rapid administration may be required

  • Intrinsic factor

    Professional Description:

    A substance produced by the normal gastrointestinal mucosa that facilitates absorption of vitamin B12

  • Introverts

    Professional Description:

    People who think things through and focus on the inner world of ideas.

  • Intuitors

    Professional Description:

    People who are imaginative, concept-oriented and focus on meanings and possibilities.

  • Iron deficiency

    Professional Description:

    the second stage in the development of iron deficiency anemia in which the supply of iron to the functional compartment (bone marrow) is low (low transferrin saturation, high FEP) due to depleted iron stores (low serum ferritin), but not yet low enough to impair production of hemoglobin.

  • Iron deficiency anemia

    Professional Description:

    hemoglobin is below the normal reference range for age as a result of depleted iron stores. Mean cell volume is also decreased.

  • Iron depletion

    Professional Description:

    the first stage in the development of iron deficiency anemia in which storage levels of iron are low, reflected by serum ferritin levels below the normal reference range for age. Levels of iron in transit, reflected by transferrin saturation or total iron binding capacity, and levels of hemoglobin are not yet affected.

  • Irritable bowel syndrome

    Professional Description:

    A chronic non-inflammatory disease characterized by abdominal pain, altered bowel habits consisting of diarrhea, or constipation, or both, with no detectable pathology. Also called spastic bowel, or spastic colon.

  • Isokinetic exercise

    Professional Description:

    Exercise performed with a specialized apparatus that provides variable resistance to a movement so that movement takes place at a constant speed regardless of how much effort is exerted.

  • Isometric contraction

    Professional Description:

    A contraction in which the muscle does not shorten, due to the load being too heavy, but internal tension increases.

  • Isotonic

    Professional Description:

    Having the same or equal osmotic pressure.

  • Isotonic contraction

    Professional Description:

    A contraction in which the muscle shortens and muscle tension remains constant.

  • Joint counts

    Professional Description:

    Outcome measure used in arthritis research and in clinical practice.  Physicians or patients report the absolute number of painful, tender or swollen joints they have.

  • Journalist Beat

    Professional Description:

    A journalist's specialty area of coverage.

  • Journalist Style

    Professional Description:

    The style of the journalist is the way he or she typically writes.

  • Judgers

    Professional Description:

    People who set and follow agendas, and those who seek closure even with incomplete data.

  • Kaempferol

    Professional Description:

    A natural flavonoid which has been isolated from tea, broccoli, grapefruit and other plant sources.

    Consumer Description:

  • Key message

    Professional Description:

    short, primary information points that tell a story.

  • Koilonychia

    Professional Description:

    A malformation of the nails in which the outer surface is concave; also commonly referred to as spoon nails.

  • Kupperman Index

    Professional Description:

    A tool used to measure 11 menopausal symptoms on a scale from 0 to 3; no symptoms to most severe.

  • Lactase nonpersistence

    Professional Description:

    Determined by biopsy or genetic testing, is a genetically programmed decrease of the enzyme lactase, leading to lactose malabsorption, and for some, to lactose intolerance.

  • lacto- ovo vegetarian

    Professional Description:

    An eating pattern based on grains, vegetables, legumes, seeds, nuts, dairy products and eggs but excludes meat, fish or fowl or products containing these foods.

  • lacto vegetarian

    Professional Description:

    An eating pattern based on grains, vegetables, legumes, seeds, nuts, and dairy but excludes meat, fish or fowl and eggs or products containing these foods.

  • Lactobacillus

    Professional Description:

    A genus of bacteria of the family Lactobacillaceae, occurring as large, gram-positive, asporogenous, rod-shaped organisms. They are anaerobic or microaerophilic and occur widely in nature and in the human mouth, vagina, and intestinal tract. They are separable into two groups, the homofermentative group producing only lactic acid, and the heterofermentative group producing other end-products of fermentation.

  • Lactose intolerance

    Professional Description:

    A clinical syndrome of one or more of the following symptoms: abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, flatulence, and bloating after the ingestion of lactose or lactose-containing foods.

  • Lactose Malabsorption

    Professional Description:

    Lactose malabsorption is a physiological problem that presents as lactose intolerance. It is caused by the imbalance between the amount of ingested lactose and the capacity for lactase to hydrolyze the disaccharide due to a deficiency in levels of the lactase enzyme. It is measured by a breath hydrogen test after the ingestion of a lactose load.

  • Lactose Nonpersistance

    Professional Description:

    Lactose nonpersistance is a genetically programmed decrease of lactase resulting in lactose malabsorption, and in some cases results in lactose intolerance.

  • Lactulose/Mannitol Test

    Professional Description:

    Clinical test to measure intestinal permeability. After an overnight fast and having passed the first morning urine, subjects drink a test solution containing lactulose and mannitol, and urine is collected for the next five hours. Mannitol is absorbed through small pores in the enterocyte membrane, and decreased excretion indicates reduced mucosal surface area. In contrast, lactulose in unable to pass through the healthy mucosa, so increased excretion of lactulose indicates increased intestinal permeability or "leaky" mucosa.

  • Lead time

    Professional Description:

    Before a health condition has fully developed, there is usually a period of time when risk factors and early symptoms are present but the condition has not yet progressed to the point of symptomatic disease diagnosis.

  • Learning

    Professional Description:

    The act, process, or experience of gaining knowledge or skill.

  • Learning objectives

    Professional Description:

    Brief, clear, specific statements of what learners will be able to perform at the conclusion of instructional activities.

  • Learning outcomes

    Professional Description:

    Statements of what a student is expected to be able to do as a result of a learning activity.

  • Leptin

    Professional Description:

    A peptide hormone that is produced by fat cells and plays a role in body weight regulation by acting on the hypothalamus to suppress appetite and burn fat stored in adipose tissue.

  • Letter to the Editor

    Professional Description:

    Letter written and submitted by a non-publications staff member, usually complementing or criticizing the coverage of an issue by the publication.

  • Leukonychia

    Professional Description:

    The occurrence of white spots, streaks, or patches under the nails due to the presence of air bubbles between the nail and its bed.

  • Likert Scale

    Professional Description:

    A type of response format used in surveys developed by Rensis Likert. Likert items have responses on a continuum and response categories such as "strongly agree," "agree," "disagree," and "strongly disagree."

  • Lipase

    Professional Description:

    An enzyme that is used by the body to break down dietary fats into a readily absorbable form. When insufficient levels of lipase are produced, dietary fats cannot be absorbed as easily, often resulting in the production of greasy, light-coloured stools (or steatorrhea). Most of the body’s lipase is produced by the pancreas.

  • LOAEL

    Professional Description:

    A LOAEL is the Lowest Observed Adverse Effects Level, which would be the lowest continuing intake at which the adverse effect was observed in one or more individuals.

  • Logarithm

    Professional Description:

    The power to which a number must be raised to obtain a secondary number. For example, 10 to the power of 6 would be 1,000,000 (one million).

  • Logistic regression

    Professional Description:

    A statistical method which determines the likelihood that an observation will fall into one of two categories of a dichotomous dependent variable based one or more continuous or categorical variables.

  • Loop diuretics

    Professional Description:

    act on the ascending loop of Henle in the kidney to inhibit reabsorption of sodium; thereby promoting sodium and subsequent water excretion in the urine. Furosemide is the most common loop diuretic prescribed to patients with heart failure and edematous disorders such as liver failure and nephrotic syndrome. Loop diuretics are the most powerful diuretics for promoting urinary sodium and water excretion.

  • Low Birth Weight

    Professional Description:

    An infant weighing less than 2500 g or 5.5 lbs.

  • low intensity exercise

    Professional Description:

    Low-intensity exercise is defined as working at a heart rate of about 60% to 65% of your maximum heart rate (which is equal to 220 - your age = maximum heart rate, thus if you are 20 years old, 220 - 20 = 200 max HR). High-intensity exercise is defined as working at about 75 to 85% or more of your maximum heart rate.

  • Major histocompatibility complex

    Professional Description:

    Genes located on chromosome 6 and encoded for the human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), present on all body cells, that distinguish self from non-self. Their products are primarily responsible for the rapid rejection of grafts between individuals. The function of the products of the MHC is signaling between lymphocytes and cells expressing antigens.

  • Malnutrition

    Professional Description:

    Undernutrition resulting from the lack of intake or uptake of nutrition leading to altered body composition and diminished function.

  • Maltodextrin

    Professional Description:

    A glucose polymer that contains six to 12 glucose molecules and exerts lesser osmotic effects compared with glucose. It is used in a variety of sports drinks as the main source of carbohydrate.

  • Mass Media

    Professional Description:

    Includes the traditional forms of media such as television, radio, newspapers and magazines as well as, but not limited to, the contemporary music videos, music lyrics, video games, movies, web pages and text messaging.

  • Mast cell

    Professional Description:

    Mast cells play an important role in the body's allergic response. Mast cells are present in most body tissues, but are particularly numerous in connective tissue, such as the dermis (innermost layer) of skin. In an allergic response, an allergen stimulates the release of antibodies, which attach themselves to mast cells. Following subsequent allergen exposure, the mast cells release substances such as histamine (a chemical responsible for allergic symptoms) into the tissue.

  • Mattis Dementia Rating Scale

    Professional Description:

    designed to measure and track mental status in adults (56-105) with cognitive impairment. The DRS-2 is very useful in the assessment and progression of dementia of Alzheimer's type, vascular dementia, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and age-related dementia in mental retardation and Down's syndrome. The (DRS-2) is individually administered and is comprised of a 36- task and 32-stimulus card. The DRS-2 assesses cognitive functioning on five subscales: Attention (ATT, 8 items); Initiation-Perseveration (I-P, 11 items); Construction (CONST, 6 items); Conceptualization (CONCEPT, 6 items); and Memory (MEM, 5 items). The reliability and validity properties of the DRS-2 are excellent. The DRS-2 uses the previously established reliability and validity scores. A test-retest reliability correlation coefficient was .97 with subscale correlation coefficients ranging from .61 to .94. The DRS was administered twice with a 1-week interval between administrations to a group of 30 patients

  • MCV

    Professional Description:

    mean cell volume

  • Mean intake

    Professional Description:

    Average intake of a particular nutrient or food for a group or population of individuals. Also average intake of a nutrient or food over two or more days for an individual.

  • Mean Requirement

    Professional Description:

    Average requirement of a particular nutrient for a group or population of individuals.

  • meat analogues

    Professional Description:

    A classification of foods made from vegetable proteins, nuts, or processed poultry or fish designed to imitate or be used in place of beef, pork, poultry, and dairy products.

  • Media Advisory

    Professional Description:

    A brief summary of a recent news event, followed by the background credentials of an expert willing to comment on it. Also known as an Interview Alert; often precedes a News Conference.

  • Media contact list

    Professional Description:

    A list of reporters and/or editors strategically chosen to reach a specific audience to the person or story being pitched.

  • Media Literacy

    Professional Description:

    The ability to access and critically evaluate mass media messages, to manage one's use of mass media and to use mass media to advocate for environmental change.

  • Median

    Professional Description:

    The median, is defined as "the middle value of the relevant set of data". The median is the value that divides the set of data in half, 50 percent of the measurement being above it and 50 percent being below it.

  • mediated approach

    Professional Description:

    intervention strategies implemented indirectly using media such as print mailings and telecommunication

  • Mediterranean Diet

    Professional Description:

    The dietary pattern found in the olive growing areas of the Mediterranean region, in the late 1950s and early 1960s, before the fast-food culture invaded the area. Specifically characterised by high monounsaturated-to-saturated fat ratio; moderate alcohol consumption; high consumption of legumes, cereals (including bread), fruits, vegetables and seafoods; low consumption of meat and meat products; and, moderate consumption of milk and dairy products. Total fat may be high - around or in excess of 40 % of total energy intake.

  • megaloblastic anemia

    Professional Description:

    Low red blood cell count, characterized by the presence in the blood of large, immature, nucleated cells (megaloblasts) that are forerunners of red blood cells. Red blood cells, when mature, have no nucleus.

  • Mentee

    Professional Description:

    One who is mentored.

  • Mentor

    Professional Description:

    A trusted counsellor, guide or advisor. Mentors are not typically involved in evaluation of learners unless in a formal facilitated mentoring program.

  • Mentoring

    Professional Description:

    The process of a mentor/mentee partnership with the more experienced person serving as a guide or advisor to the less experienced person.

  • Menu labelling

    Professional Description:

    The provision of information on calories, fat, sodium and other selected nutrients in menu items at point of purchase.

  • Meta analysis

    Professional Description:

    quantitative statistical analysis that is applied to separate but similar experiments of different and usually independent researchers and that involves pooling the data and using the pooled data to test the effectiveness of the results

  • Metabolic Body Weight

    Professional Description:

    Metabolic body weight is weight (kg)0.75. Many physiological variables (such as metabolic rate) do not appear to vary in direct proportion to body weight. Instead, they vary in proportion to what is known as metabolic body weight.

  • metabolic syndrome

    Professional Description:

    The metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) refers to a clustering of specific CVD risk factors whose underlying pathophysiology is thought to be related to insulin resistance. In Canada, the criteria used to diagnosis MetSyn are based on the NCEP ATP III criteria (1) and consists of three or more of the following (2): - abdominal obesity: waist circumference >102 cm in men and >88 cm in women - serum triglycerides 1.7 mmol/L - blood pressure 130/85 mmHg - HDL cholesterol <1.0 mmol/L in men and <1.3 mmol/L in women - fasting glucose 5.7 - 7.0 mmol/L.

  • Metastasis

    Professional Description:

    Metastasis is the spread or a change of position or form of a disease-producing cells from the initial or primary site of disease to another part of the body.

  • Methacholine challenge

    Professional Description:

    Methacholine is a pharmacologic agent used to assess airway hyperresponsiveness. Methacholine challenge is the most common method for quantifying airway responsiveness. Responsiveness is determined from the changes in lung function resulting from inhaling increasing concentrations of methacholine. Heightened airway responsiveness to a number of stimuli is characteristic of asthma.

  • Microcytic

    Professional Description:

    Pertaining to abnormally small red blood cell present especially as in microcytic anemias

  • Migraine

    Professional Description:

    A symptom complex occurring periodically that s characterized by pain in the head, nausea and vomiting, vertigo, photophobia, and scintillating appearances of light. Migraine subtypes include classic migraine, common migraine, cluster headache, hemiplegic migraine, ophthalmoplegic migraine, and ophthalmic migraine.

  • Migraineur

    Professional Description:

    An individual who experiences migraines.

  • Mild Hypoglycemia

    Professional Description:

    Associated with the presence of autonomic symptoms and the ability to self-treat.

  • Mild-intensity exercise

    Professional Description:

    Generally do not cause heavy breathing, only mildly elevate the heart rate, and do not affect blood glucose levels unless performed for more than 10 minutes.

  • Mildly/Moderately dehydrated

    Professional Description:

    Mild dehydration is when some deficits or abnormalities in laboratory values exist but they do not seriously impair an individual''s circulation, organ function or level of functioning. Moderate dehydration is when some deficits or laboratory abnormalities exist that impair or are likely to impair circulation or organ function but are not immediately life threatening.

  • Moderate alcohol intake

    Professional Description:

    no more than 1 drink a day and no more than 7 drinks a week where one standard drink is considered 1 bottle (350 mL/12 oz.) of 5% beer, 150 mL/5 oz. of 10-14% wine or 50 mL/1 1/2 oz. 40 % alcohol spirits

  • Moderate Hypoglycemia

    Professional Description:

    Associated with the presence of autonomic and neuroglycopenic symptoms and the ability to self-treat.

  • Moderate intensity aerobic exercise

    Professional Description:

    Includes jogging, walking, cycling or swimming

  • Moderate intensity counselling

    Professional Description:

    Face to face sessions which consist of 2-3 group or individual sessions ≥ 30 minutes delivered by a dietitian or other health professional

  • Moderate to high intensity counselling

    Professional Description:

    High is more than 6 contacts lasting more than 30 minutes, low is 1 contact lasting less than 30 minutes, medium is between low and high

  • Moderate-intensity exercise

    Professional Description:

    Described as 40-60% VO2max (50-70% of maximum heart rate, glucose uptake increased by 2-3mg per kg per minute above usual requirements). Examples include brisk walking, biking, continuous swimming, dancing, water aerobics, raking leaves.

  • modifiable risk factors

    Professional Description:

    factors which increase risk of a certain disease or disorder that can be adjusted by the individual. They include smoking, inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, stress, excessive weight

  • MONICA Project

    Professional Description:

    Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease Project

  • Monoclonal

    Professional Description:

    Referring to a single clone. Example: Monoclonal antibodies are produced by a single clone of cell and therefore are a single type of antibody.

  • Monogenic

    Professional Description:

    A descriptive term of or relating to an inheritable characteristic that is influenced by a single gene.

  • morbidly obese

    Professional Description:

    BMI of 40 or greater, or BMI of 35 or greater in the presence of significant co-morbidities

  • Moro reaction

    Professional Description:

    a scoring system for neonatal narcotic withdrawal.

  • Mucins

    Professional Description:

    Any of a group of glycoproteins found especially in the secretions of mucous membranes.

  • Multicultural Competence

    Professional Description:

    The possession of the awareness, knowledge, and skills needed to work effectively with clients from different cultures.

  • Multicultural nutrition counselling

    Professional Description:

    Nutrition counselling which involves a nutrition professional and a client who are from different cultures.

  • Multiple Daily Injections

    Professional Description:

    a form of intensive therapy using an intermediate- or long-acting insulin, or extended long-acting insulin analogue once or twice daily as the basal insulin, and a fast-acting or rapid-acting insulin analogue as the bolus insulin for food intake at each meal. This type of insulin regime permits adjustment of insulin doses for variable carbohydrate intake.

  • Multivitamin/mineral supplement

    Professional Description:

    Any supplement containing three or more vitamins or minerals, but no herbs, hormones or drugs, with each component at a level less than the tolerable upper intake level (UL).

  • Mycoprotein

    Professional Description:

    Mycoprotein is the main constituent of Quorn™ a high protein, high fibre food made from fungi.

  • myelodysplastic syndrome

    Professional Description:

    Any of a group of bone marrow disorders that are marked especially by an abnormal reduction in one or more types of circulating blood cells due to defective growth and maturation of blood-forming cells in the bone marrow and that sometimes progress to acute myelogenous leukemia -- called also myelodysplasia

  • myoglobin

    Professional Description:

    A red iron-containing protein pigment in muscles that is similar to hemoglobin but differs in the globin portion of its molecule

  • Myosin

    Professional Description:

    A major contractile protein in muscle found in thick filaments.

  • nadir

    Professional Description:

    The lowest blood glucose concentration on the curve.

  • National Academy of Sciences

    Professional Description:

    The NAS is an American private non-profit society of scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the advancement of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare of the public. The Academy's mandate requires it to advise the U.S. federal government on scientific and technical matters.

  • National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Professional Description:

    National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a survey conducted periodically by the National Center for Health Statistics, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

  • Natural Health Product

    Professional Description:

    In Canada the term "Natural Health Product" is used to refer to certain vitamins, minerals, herbal products, as well as several other items. In the United States the term "Dietary Supplement" is used rather than NHP. It is described by the U.S. Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 as: products made of one or more of the essential nutrients, such as vitamins, minerals and protein, herbs or other botanicals and any dietary substance that can be used to supplement the diet.

  • Natural Health Products regulations

    Professional Description:

    In Canada the National Health Products Directorate (NHPD), Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada, govern the Natural Health Products regulations. The role of the NHPD is to ensure that Canadians have access to natural health products that are safe, effective, and of high quality. New Canadian Natural Health Products Regulations came into force on January 1st, 2004 with a transition period of up to six years, to December 31st, 2009. Until 2009, the sales of NHPs will remain somewhat uncontrolled and unregulated, as long as the label contains no health claims. Many products now found in health food stores do not meet the new regulations. At the end of the 6 year transition period all NHPs, which have met the regulations, will have a natural product number (NPN) issued. In the previous Food and Drug Regulations, some products were issued a drug identification number (DIN) The manufacturers of these products will also need to apply for a product license number. The new regulatio

  • Natural Product Number

    Professional Description:

    Natural Product Number is an eight (8) digit numerical code assigned to each natural health product approved to be marketed under the Natural Health Products Regulations.

  • negative correlation

    Professional Description:

    A relationship between two factors (called variables) where a positive change of one creates a negative change of the second.

  • Neural Tube Defects

    Professional Description:

    The neural tube is the tube that forms from fusion of the neural folds from which the brain and spinal cord arise. Defects can occur during development of the brain and spinal cord eg. spina bifida

  • Neuroglycopenic Symptoms

    Professional Description:

    Symptoms manifested as a result of decreased glucose to the brain: difficulty concentrating, confusion, weakness, drowsiness, vision changes, difficulty speaking, headache, dizziness and tiredness.

  • Neuropsychology

    Professional Description:

    A branch of clinical psychology that studies how the brain and nervous system work together to affect daily human functioning.

  • Neutrophil

    Professional Description:

    Neutrophil is a white blood cell that acts primarily to fight infections.

  • News Conference

    Professional Description:

    Prearranged gather of media representatives to announce and explain a significant and newsworthy subject or event.

  • News Release

    Professional Description:

    The most common written form used in public relations, announcing a client's news and information.

  • Newsworthy

    Professional Description:

    information that is new, unusual, unexpected, controversial or of wide significance or interest to the audience of a publication or program.

  • NHIS

    Professional Description:

    National Health Interview Survey, a survey conducted periodically by the National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services.

  • Niacin Equivalent (NE)

    Professional Description:

    1 mg of "niacin equivalent (NE)" = 60 mg of tryptophan and 1 mg of preformed niacin.

  • No breastmilk

    Professional Description:

    the infant/child receives no breastmilk

  • NOAEL

    Professional Description:

    A NOAEL is the No Observed Adverse Effects Level, which would be the highest observed level of chronic intake that was NOT associated with development of the adverse effect in any of the individuals studied.

  • Nocturnal Hypoglycemia

    Professional Description:

    Hypoglycemic episodes that first occur during the night, usually defined as the period between midnight and 8 AM.

  • Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

    Professional Description:

    This represents a continuous spectrum of liver disease that includes hepatic steatosis (fatty liver) with and without inflammation and fibrosis. Individuals with hepatic steatosis in the presence of inflammation and fibrosis have non-alcoholic steatohepatits (NASH). NAFLD is considered to represent the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome in adults and children.

  • non modifiable risk factors

    Professional Description:

    factors which increase risk of a certain disease or disorder that are beyond the control of the individual. They include age, gender, ethnicity, family history

  • Non-functional iron

    Professional Description:

    storage iron, found mainly in the liver, spleen, muscle or bone marrow. Ferritin is the major form of storage iron (95%), with the balance being hemosiderin.

  • Nonradical Reactive Species

    Professional Description:

    A term used to describe substances that do not contain an unpaired electron, but are nevertheless highly reactive. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 or HOOH) and lipid peroxides (LOOH) are examples of nonradical reactive oxygen species. These compounds, however, can react to form free radicals. For example, hydrogen peroxide can react with the superoxide radical to form water, oxygen and the hydroxyl radical.

  • Normal Distribution

    Professional Description:

    When values are normally distributed the shape of the distribution will be symmetrical and will have a specific "bell" shape, with 95% of all values falling within 2 standard deviations of the mean.

  • Normocytic

    Professional Description:

    Characterized by red blood cells that are normal in size and usually also in hemoglobin content

  • NRC

    Professional Description:

    National Research Council, the organization arm of the National Academies

  • Nutraceuticals

    Professional Description:

    Purified or isolated natural health products in medicinal form. For example, genistein isolated from fermented soy meal and sold in tablet form as a soy dietary supplement.

  • Nutramigen

    Professional Description:

    A hypoallergenic formula that contains extensively hydrolyzed or broken down casein. Originally intended for the treatment of food allergy in infants, it is also used for the prevention of allergy in high risk infants.

  • Nutrient Panels

    Professional Description:

    The nutrient panels are composed of scientists who are experts on one or more of the nutrients addressed by a panel.

  • Nutrient Requirement

    Professional Description:

    The lowest continuing intake level of a nutrient that will maintain a defined level of nutriture in a healthy individual; also called individual requirement.

  • Nutrigenetics

    Professional Description:

    is how genetic variations modify an individual’s response to diet. Nutrigenetics is concerned with the effects of individual genetic variation (single nucleotide polymorphisms) on response to diet, which will progress towards making personalized dietary recommendations. The term ‘nutrigenomics’ is often used in place of ‘nutrigenetics’, which can be confusing.

  • Nutrigenomics

    Professional Description:

    The relationship between specific nutrients or diet on gene expression that will facilitate prevention of diet-related common diseases. ''Nutrigenomics'' and ''Nutritional Genomics'' are both used as umbrella terms describing the interface between the nutritional environment and cellular / genetic processes. The term ''nutrigenomics'' is often used in place of ''nutrigenetics'' as well, which can be confusing.

  • Nutrition Counselling

    Professional Description:

    Nutrition counselling is a targeted dietary intervention wherein counselling has clear goals that are understood to have prescribed nutritive content and a timetable. This involves in-depth assessment, health education, and behavioural counselling to develop skills and motivation to undertake the specific diet and exercise changes with follow-up evaluation. Usually it occurs over several encounters. Counselling is usually directed to individuals, and may be directed at addressing any of health promotion, disease prevention and/or disease treatment strategies.

  • Nutrition Screening

    Professional Description:

    The process of identifying characteristics known to be associated with dietary or nutritional problems. Its purpose is to differentiate individuals who are at high risk of nutritional problems or have poor nutritional status.

  • Nutrition Service Record

    Professional Description:

    An information management document containing demographics, record of nutritional risk information, referral and follow-up services offered. Useful in evaluation process during and at completion of initiative.

  • Nutritional Status

    Professional Description:

    Condition of an individual or group resulting from nutrient intake and utilization of a nutrient at the tissue level.

  • nutritionally-at-risk

    Professional Description:

    According to ASPEN guidelines, adults are considered at nutritional risk if they have any of the following: -actual or potential for developing malnutrition (involuntary loss or gain of ≥10% of usual body weight within six months or ≥ 5% of usual body weight in one month, a weight of 20% over or under ideal weight) -altered diets or diet schedules (receiving parenteral nutrition or enteral nutrition, recent surgery, illness or trauma) -inadequate nutrition intake, including not receiving food or nutrition products (impaired ability to ingest or absorb food adequately) for more than seven days

  • Obesity

    Professional Description:

    Adults: BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 Children and adolescents: BMI for age = 95th percentile

  • observational studies

    Professional Description:

    In order to study the relationships among variables, observational studies are performed. Unlike controlled experimental designs where only certain variables are allowed to vary (at prespecified levels), in observational studies the variables are observed and recorded. Often some of the variables are controlled as much as possible. Consider a long term study on a drug involving humans where a variable that needs to be controlled is diet. The diet guidelines are set but these will probably be broken from time to time (or maybe often) by some of the human subjects. Contrast this with a lab setting, where the diet of animals can be controlled. In observational studies, cause and effect are hard (often impossible) to establish. But associations and predictabilities among variables can be investigated. Such associations and predictabilities may be further studied in a lab setting.

  • Obstructive sleep apnea

    Professional Description:

    A sleep disorder characterized by the repetitive collapse of the pharyngeal airway during sleep yielding hypoxia and hypercapnia, with arousal being required to re-establish airway patency.

  • occult blood

    Professional Description:

    Not manifest or detectable by clinical methods alone

  • Ochratoxin

    Professional Description:

    Ochratoxin A, B, and C are mycotoxins produced by some Aspergillis species and Penicillium species. Ochratoxin A, a human carcinogen, is known to occur in food and beverages such as cereals, coffee, dried fruit and red wine.

    Consumer Description:

  • Oligoantigenic diet

    Professional Description:

    A type of elimination diet used to test for multiple food intolerances by selectively limiting food choices.

  • Oligosaccharide

    Professional Description:

    A carbohydrate which on hydrolysis yields a small number (from two to four or as many as 10, according to various authorities) of monosaccharides. Two examples are fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) and galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS).

  • Oligospermia

    Professional Description:

    A subnormal concentration of spermatozoa in the penile ejaculate.

  • One repetition maximum

    Professional Description:

    The maximum amount of weight that can be lifted one time with correct form during a standard weight lifting exercise.

  • Onycholysis

    Professional Description:

    The loosening of the nail from the nail bed.

  • Onychomalacia

    Professional Description:

    The softening of the nails.

  • Onychoschizia

    Professional Description:

    The splitting of the nail in layers.

  • Op-Ed Letter

    Professional Description:

    Opinion and column page usually opposite the editorial page.

  • open-label study

    Professional Description:

    An open-label study is where both the researchers and the study participants know which treatment each individual is receiving.

  • Oral Allergy Syndrome

    Professional Description:

    Itching and swelling in the mouth and oropharynx associated with pollen allergies, especially to birch, grass, ragweed and mugwort as a result of eating a fruit or vegetable which cross-reacts with pollen.

  • oral rehydration solutions

    Professional Description:

    Special combinations of water, carbohydrate, sodium, potassium, chloride, and a base precursor in an osmolar or hypoosmolar solution that help rehydrate the body when fluid has been lost due to diarrhoea. ORS vary primarily in their carbohydrate and sodium content.

  • oral rehydration therapy

    Professional Description:

    The preferred method of treating dehydration in infants who have diarrhea due to acute gastroenteritis. It includes a rehydration phase in which stool losses of fluid and electrolytes are rapidly replaced enterally with an oral rehydration solution (ORS), and a maintenance phase, which involves replacement of continuing fluid and electrolyte losses with ORS to prevent further dehydration, and continued feeding to achieve adequate dietary intake

  • Organochlorines

    Professional Description:

    Pesticide category that persist in the environment long after use. Banned pesticide orgnochlorines include DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, and heptachlor. Some of these chemicals were banned as pesticides in the 1970s.

  • Orthorexia Nervosa

    Professional Description:

    The pathological obsession with eating biologically pure and healthy food. Ref: Bratman S. Original orthorexia essay.

  • osteoblast

    Professional Description:

    a bone-forming cell

  • Osteomalacia

    Professional Description:

    A condition of impaired mineralization caused by vitamin D and calcium deficiency.

  • Osteopenia

    Professional Description:

    A condition of too little bone mass during any stage of life.

  • Outcomes research

    Professional Description:

    Outcomes research seeks to understand the end results of particular health care practices and interventions. End results include effects that people experience and care about, such as change in the ability to function. In particular, for individuals with chronic conditions—where cure is not always possible—end results include quality of life as well as mortality. Outcomes research is also referred to as medical effectiveness research or outcomes and effectiveness research.

  • Ovalbumin

    Professional Description:

    An allergen found in egg white. Ovalbumin is a glycoprotein.

  • overweight

    Professional Description:

    Adults: BMI greater or equal to 25 kg/m2 Children and adolescents: BMI for age = 85th percentile and < 95th percentile

  • ovo vegetarian

    Professional Description:

    An eating pattern based on grains, vegetables, legumes, seeds, nuts, and eggs but excludes meat, fish or fowl and dairy or products containing these foods.

  • Ovomucoid

    Professional Description:

    An allergen found in egg white. Ovomucoid is a glycoprotein.

  • Oxidative Stress

    Professional Description:

    Oxidative Stress is defined as an imbalance between the production of various reactive species and the ability of the organism's natural protective mechanisms to cope with these reactive compounds and prevent adverse effects.

  • Paired Comparison

    Professional Description:

    A methodology which involves repeatedly presenting all pairs of stimuli (competencies) one at a time and asking which stimulus (competency) of the pair is preferred over the other.

  • Pancreatic Insufficiency

    Professional Description:

    Present in nearly 90% of patients with CF and characterized by a fecal elastase-1 concentration of less than or equal to 200 mcg/g of stool. Small intestinal transit in patients with PI can be accelerated by up to 50%, significantly decreasing available time for digestion and absorption. Enzyme replacement therapy can, to some extent, help to correct GI transit disturbances. Due to severe lipase and protease deficiency, unabsorbed lipid and protein reach the colon, potentially inducing steatorrhea and creatorrhea, respectively.

  • Pancytopenia

    Professional Description:

    A reduction in the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in the blood.

  • Para Thyroid Hormone

    Professional Description:

    A hormone of the parathyroid gland that regulates the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus in the body -- abbreviation PTH; called also parathormone

  • Parent training

    Professional Description:

    A behavioural counseling method where parents are guided through a series of techniques to improve their parenting skills, including positive reinforcement, role modeling and limit setting.

  • Partial breastmilk

    Professional Description:

    breastmilk, given by the mother, health care provider, or family member/supporter plus 3 or more feeds of any food or liquid including non-human milk, during the past 7 days.

  • Pasteurization

    Professional Description:

    Pasteurization is the heating of liquids to a prescribed temperature for a specified period of time to destroy disease-causing bacteria

  • Peak flow meter

    Professional Description:

    A portable, inexpensive, hand-held device used to measure how air flows from lungs in one "fast blast" to measure the ability to push air out of the lungs. Measurements with a peak flow meter help the patient and physician monitor asthma. These measurements can be important in helping a physician prescribe medicines to keep asthma in control.

  • Pearson's r

    Professional Description:

    The usual measure of correlation, sometimes called product-moment correlation

  • Perceivers

    Professional Description:

    People who adapt to changing circumstances, and those who postpone reaching closure to obtain more data.

  • Perennial rhinitis

    Professional Description:

    Non-seasonal inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose.

  • Periconceptional

    Professional Description:

    pertaining to the period before conception through to the first two months of pregnancy

  • Pernicious anemia

    Professional Description:

    A severe hyperchromic anemia marked by a progressive decrease in number and increase in size and hemoglobin content of the red blood cells and by pallor, weakness, and gastrointestinal and nervous disturbances and associated with reduced ability to absorb vitamin B12 due to the absence of intrinsic factor -- called also addisonian anemia

  • Pfeiffer's Mental Status Questionnaire

    Professional Description:

    an instrument used to detect the presence of intellectual impairment. A 10-item Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), easily administered by any clinician in the office or in a hospital, has been designed, tested, standardized and validated. The standardization and validation procedure included administering the test to 997 elderly persons residing in the community, to 141 elderly persons referred for psychiatric and other health and social problems to a multipurpose clinic, and to 102 elderly persons living in institutions such as nursing homes, homes for the aged, or state mental hospitals. It was found that educational level and race had to be taken into account in scoring individual performance. On the basis of the large community population, standards of performance were established for: 1) intact mental functioning, 2) borderline or mild organic impairment, 3) definite but moderate organic impairment, and 4) severe organic impairment. In the 141 clinic patients, the

  • P-Glycoprotein

    Professional Description:

    Is a plasma membrane-bound protein, a member of a larger family of efflux transporters encoded by multi-drug resistance genes, MDR1 or ABCB1. P-GP plays an important role in drug absorption and disposition, acting as a biological barrier by expelling toxins and xenobiotics from cells.

  • Pharmacogenomics

    Professional Description:

    The ability to use genetic information to design drugs that specifically target a susceptible protein or to classify a population into those who will respond to a particular drug and thereby benefit from its use, those who will experience side effects, and those for whom the drug will have no effect at all.

  • Phenotype

    Professional Description:

    The observable properties of an organism that are produced by the interaction of the genotype and the environment.

  • Physical activity

    Professional Description:

    Defined as bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that requires energy expenditure in excess of resting energy expenditure.

  • Phytate

    Professional Description:

    is a salt or ester of phytic acid. It is associated with dietary fiber and is present in a wide variety of plant foods, especially wheat bran, whole grains, seeds, and legumes.

  • Phytic acid

    Professional Description:

    is the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant tissues including seeds, cereal grains, legumes, and nuts and is abundant in bran. When ingested it binds with minerals such as zinc, calcium, and magnesium, interfering with their intestinal absorption.

  • Phytoestrogen

    Professional Description:

    A plant compound that has physiological properties similar to estrogen.

  • Pitch

    Professional Description:

    An angle encompassing a unique or interesting aspect or a story or a person used to catch the media's attention and to sell reporters on a particular story or interview.

  • Plain language

    Professional Description:

    An approach to writing that avoids complex language and complicated expressions. Often used in developing resources for low literacy audiences. Also referred to as "clear language".

  • Plants of the Apiaceae Family

    Professional Description:

    The family contains about 300 genera with around 3,000 species. Approximately 75 of these are cultivated plants Commonly consumed vegetables include: parsnip; carrot; celery; celeriac Commonly consumed spices/herbs include: Angelica, Anise Caraway, Celery Seed, Chervil; Coriander, Cumin, Dill, Fennel, Parsley, Sweet Cicily, Water Celery

  • Plants of the Rosaceae Family

    Professional Description:

    The Rosaceae are trees, shrubs and herbs comprising about 100 genera and 3,000 species. The Family Rosaceae dominates the temperate fruits, both in numbers and in importance. and brambles are fruits of plants in Rosaceae. The pome fruits include: apple & crabapple (Malus); chokeberry or cooking apple (Aronia; serviceberry or saskatoon (Amelanchier);Loquat (Eryobotrya japonica);Medlar (Mespilus germanica);Pear, European and Asian species (Pyrus);Quince (Cydonia oblonga and Chaenomeles);Rowan (Sorbus);Service tree (Sorbus domestica), bears a fruit known as a sorb or sorb apple;Rose-hip, the fruitlike base of roses (Rosa); used mostly for jams and herbal tea. The stone fruits, drupes of genus Prunus: Apricot (Prunus armeniaca or Armeniaca vulgaris); Cherry, sweet, sour, and wild species (Prunus avium, P. cerasus, and others); Plum, domestic and wild species; dried plums (prunes);Peach (of the normal and white variety) and its variant the nectarine (Prunus persica;Chokecherry (Pru

  • Plasma histamine levels

    Professional Description:

    The level of histamine in blood plasma can be measured by a variety of techniques. A “normal” level of histamine is always present in the body, which is required for various essential physiological processes. In an allergic reaction this level rises as histamine is released from mast cells during the process of IgE-mediated degranulation.

  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1

    Professional Description:

    An acute phase reactant involved in fibrinolysis. It has been found to be present in high levels in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. It is linked to the increased occurrence of thrombosis (blood clot formation) in individuals who are obese and/or have metabolic syndrome.

  • Pneumomediastinum

    Professional Description:

    Air in the mediastinum, the space in the middle of the chest.

  • Pneumothorax

    Professional Description:

    A collapsed lung.

  • Pollinosis

    Professional Description:

    The allergic reaction in the body to the air-borne pollen of plants, resulting in the seasonal type of hay fever

  • polycarbonate

    Professional Description:

    A widely used plastic that is made from bisphenol A. On bottles, its universal recycling code is listed under #7.

  • Polygenic

    Professional Description:

    A descriptive term of or relating to an inheritable characteristic that is influenced by several genes.

  • polyphenols

    Professional Description:

    General term for several groups of compounds found in plants that contain more than one benzene ring in their chemical structure. Several biologically important plant chemicals belong to this class including bioflavonoids and tannins. Many of these compounds function as effective antioxidants.

  • Pomelo/Pummelo

    Professional Description:

    An ancient ancestor of the common grapefruit, also know as a Chinese grapefruit.

  • Population Attributable Risk Percent

    Professional Description:

    Population attributable risk percent is the proportion of incidence of a disease that would be eliminated if the risk factor were eliminated.

  • Porcine Lipase

    Professional Description:

    The current standard for enzyme replacement therapy. They are enzymes derived from pork and are currently prepared with an enteric coating to protect them from the acidic gastric environment.

  • Post-operative ileus

    Professional Description:

    (POI) occurs after abdominal surgery and involves a transient cessation of bowel function. There may be a reduction in activity sufficient to prevent effective transit of intestinal contents. POI is caused by a complex interaction between inhibitory neural reflexes, neurotransmitters, inflammatory mediators, and endogenous and exogenous opioids and usually resolves within two to three days. It can cause patient discomfort, increase postoperative complications, negatively affects patient nutritional status, and increases length of stay.

  • Post-Translational Processing

    Professional Description:

    A process that inactive proteins go through after translation is complete to become active such as adding sugars to a protein or cleaving it into a smaller molecule.

  • Pouchitis

    Professional Description:

    The acute inflammation of intestinal mucosa occuring in the ileal reservoir.

  • Prader-Willi syndrome

    Professional Description:

    A genetic disorder characterized by short stature, mental retardation, hypotonia, abnormally small hands and feet and uncontrolled appetite leading to extreme obesity.

  • Prebiotics

    Professional Description:

    Prebiotics are defined as a non-digestible food ingredients (dietary fibre) that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one of more limited number of bacteria in the colon and thus improve host health. For a food ingredient to be considered a prebiotic, it must meet several criteria. These criteria include: it must neither be hydrolysed, nor absorbed in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract; be selectively fermented by one or a limited number of potentially beneficial bacteria in the intestine; and it must be able to alter the colonic microflora towards a healthier composition.

  • Precede-Proceed Model

    Professional Description:

    helps determine a patient's needs within a given counselling context by assessing motivational characteristics, physical, manual and economic barriers and facilitators, and specific circumstantial rewards and penalties. The approach can avoid inappropriate techniques, for example trying to persuade an already-motivated patient that change is necessary. Skipping unnecessary steps frees time to focus on aspects of the knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and understanding that require modification.

  • Preceptee

    Professional Description:

    A participant in a program as an active learner and colleague.

  • Preceptor

    Professional Description:

    A teacher or instructor who provides practical experience and training to a student and evaluates student progress.

  • preceptoring

    Professional Description:

    The process of working with students for the purpose of training.

  • Predictive value of a tool

    Professional Description:

    it’s overall ability to predict correctly the presence or absence of nutritional risk

  • Predictive value theory

    Professional Description:

    The predictive value of a test is a measure of the times that the value (either positive or negative) is the true value; i.e. the percent of all positive tests that are true positives is the positive predictive value.

  • Predominant breastmilk

    Professional Description:

    breastmilk, given by the mother, health care provider, or family member/supporter plus 1 or a maximum of 2 feeds of any food or liquid including non-human milk, during the past 7 days.

  • Pre-eclampsia

    Professional Description:

    A condition in pregnancy manifested by hypertension, edema and/or proteinuria (excess protein in urine).

  • Pregnancy-Unique Quantification of Emesis (PUQE) scoring system

    Professional Description:

    a scoring system to quantify the severity of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.  Based on quantification of the three physical symptoms including nausea, vomiting and retching; PUQE closely correlates with the validated but much more complex Rhodes' score

  • Premature Infant

    Professional Description:

    An infant who is born before the 37th week of pregnancy.

  • Pressure ulcer

    Professional Description:

    A pressure ulcer is a localized injury to the skin and/or underlying tissue that is typically over a bony prominence resulting from pressure, or pressure in combination with shear and/or friction.

  • Prevalence

    Professional Description:

    The percentage of a defined population that is affected by a specific condition at the same time.

  • Prevalence of Nutrient Inadequacy

    Professional Description:

    The percentage of a population or group that has intakes below requirements.

  • Prick-by-prick test

    Professional Description:

    The prick-by-prick test involves insertion of a sterilized needle into the test food in its raw state. The food is then transferred to the patient by inserting the needle a little way into the skin. The same wheal and flare response as in the skin tests indicates a positive reaction

  • Prickly Pear Cactus

    Professional Description:

    Is also known as Nopal, is found throughout the Western hemisphere and is used commonly in Mexico. The used parts are the leaves, flowers, stems, and fruit.

  • Primary Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

    Professional Description:

    Lifestyle choices to prevent the development of cardiovascular risk factors.

  • Primary Care

    Professional Description:

    Primary care is the element within primary health care that focuses on health care services, including health promotion, illness and injury prevention, and the diagnosis and treatment of illness and injury. Primary care deals mainly with the prevention and treatment of sickness. It is what Canadians think of as front-line care, traditionally in the form of a visit to the family doctor. Primary care may involve immunization, preventative advice (stop smoking, get some exercise), diagnosis and treatment of illness, but it stops short of a comprehensive, intersectoral approach to producing or enhancing health. Perhaps most importantly, primary care is focused on individuals and families, but not the community as the unit of intervention.

  • primary dentition

    Professional Description:

    Teeth developed and erupted first in order of time; the first set of teeth to develop; the first baby teeth; they begin to erupt at about 6 months and consist of 20 teeth

  • Primary Health Care 

    Professional Description:

    Primary health care "is a comprehensive and egalitarian idea. It connects health and health care to social and economic organization. It is organized to meet the needs of everyone, but particularly disadvantaged populations. It strikes a balance between health promotion and health care; health and social services; individuals and communities. It entails the transfer of power from professionals to citizens and breaks down many of the traditional hierarchies within health care..." Primary health care is “a set of universally accessible first-level services that promote health, prevent disease and provide diagnostic, curative, rehabilitative, palliative and supportive services”. Primary health care "refers to an approach to health and a spectrum of services beyond the traditional health care system. It includes all services that play a part in health, such as income, housing, education, and environment”

  • Primary lactase deficiency

    Professional Description:

    A relative or absolute absence of the enzyme, lactase, that develops in childhood

  • Probability

    Professional Description:

    Risk or likelihood of an occurrence.

  • Probability Approach

    Professional Description:

    A method of assessing the nutrient adequacy of groups. It uses the distribution of usual intakes and the distribution of requirements to estimate the prevalence of inadequate intakes in a group. Also known as the NRC approach.

  • Probability of Inadequacy

    Professional Description:

    Outcome of a calculation that compares an individual's usual intake to the distribution of requirements for persons of the same life stage and gender to determine the probability that the individual's intake does not meet his or her requirements.

  • Probiotic

    Professional Description:

    Live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host.

  • Prodrome

    Professional Description:

    A technical term used by mental health professionals to describe a specific group of symptoms that may precede the onset of a mental illness.

  • Promoter Region

    Professional Description:

    A region in DNA that encodes regulatory sequences needed for gene transcription.

  • pro-oxidant

    Professional Description:

    A substance that causes oxidation and damage to cells and surrounding molecules. Some Antioxidants in very high doses can turn into pro-oxidants.

  • prospective epidemiologic studies

    Professional Description:

    A type of epidemiological studies designed to examine events from a point in time into the future. Epidemilogical studies are of two basic types depending on (a) whether the events have already happened (retrospective) or (b) whether the events may happen in the future (prospective). The most common studies are the retrospective studies which are also called case-control studies. A case-control study may begin when an outbreak of disease is noted and the causes of the disease are not known, or the disease is unusual within the population studied.

  • prostate specific antigen

    Professional Description:

    A single-chain glycoprotein with 240 amino acid residues and four carbohydrate side chains, found in normal seminal fluid and produced by the prostatic epithelial cells. Elevated levels in the blood are associated with prostatic enlargement and prostatic adenocarcinoma.

  • Protein-coding Region

    Professional Description:

    A region in DNA that dictates the genetic recipe which is used to produce the protein.

  • Proteolytic enzymes

    Professional Description:

    Enzymes that break down proteins

  • Prothrombin time

    Professional Description:

    The time it takes plasma to clot after an addition of tissue factor (obtained from animals) which measures the quality of the pathway of blood coagulation.

  • proton pump inhibitors

    Professional Description:

    The most powerful type of acid suppressors. These medications work by preventing acid pumps in the stomach from producing too much acid. Also known as acid pump inhibitors.

  • Psychrophilic Bacteria

    Professional Description:

    Bacteria capable of thriving at a relatively low temperature.

    Consumer Description:

  • Public Service Announcements

    Professional Description:

    Advertising with a message in the interest of the public, usually run free of charge at the station's discretion.

  • Pulque

    Professional Description:

    mildly alcoholic beverage (4-6% ethanol by volume) that is consumed at meals.

  • Quercetin

    Professional Description:

    Aflavonol found in capers, apples, tea, onions, red grapes, citrus fruits, broccoli and other leafy green vegetables, cherries, and several berries including raspberry, lingonberry, cranberry

    Consumer Description:

  • radioallergosorbent test

    Professional Description:

    RAST is an abbreviation for RadioAllergoSorbent Test, a trademark of Pharmacia Diagnostics, which originated the test. RAST is a laboratory test used to detect IgE antibodies to specific allergens (2). CAP-RAST is a specific type of RAST. RAST is a allergy test carried out on a sample of blood. The aim with RAST, as with skin tests, is to check for allergic sensitivity to specific antigens. In the test, the sample of blood is mixed with substances known to trigger allergies. The test measures the level of IgE allergy antibodies to specific antigens in the blood which are present if there is a allergic reaction

  • Ratings of perceived exertion

    Professional Description:

    A subjective rating using a numerical scale that expresses the perceived difficulty of a given exercise task.

  • Raw Food Diet

    Professional Description:

    A raw food diet is a diet of uncooked foods. Typically this is a vegan diet, although in a small proportion of cases animal products such as raw meat or fish are included.

  • Reactive Species

    Professional Description:

    This is a general term used to describe substances that are highly reactive - i.e., they can react with and damage other molecules. The primary reactive species include reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). These in turn react with other compounds in the body and generate radical intermediates of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids that ultimately form the chemical end products of oxidative stress.

  • Recannulation

    Professional Description:

    The resiting or siting a cannula; a cannula is a flexible tube that is inserted into the body to withdraw fluid or insert medication. A venous cannula is inserted into a vein, primarily for the administration of intravenous fluids and medicines.

  • Recommend Nutrient Intakes

    Professional Description:

    Recommend Nutrient Intakes

  • Recommended Dietary Allowance

    Professional Description:

    The average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97 to 98 percent) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group.

  • Recommended Intake

    Professional Description:

    For an individual, the recommended intake is one that is almost certain to meet or exceed their individual requirement. The RDA and the AI are both recommended intakes for individuals.

  • Reference Body Weights

    Professional Description:

    Reference body weight is the weight for individuals at the median height, at a median BMI within an age range, calculated from national reference data.

  • Refractory HF

    Professional Description:

    The most advanced form of heart failure which occurs when a heart failure patient remains symptomatic despite optimal medical therapies.

  • Regulated discretionary fortification

    Professional Description:

    The optional addition of any nutrient from a defined list of vitamins and minerals, over defined ranges, at the discretion of food manufacturers.

  • Regurgitation

    Professional Description:

    Passage of refluxed gastric contents into the oral pharynx.

  • Reinforcement management

    Professional Description:

    A technique in which a person is rewarded for completing a specific behaviour.

  • Release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells

    Professional Description:

    Inflammatory mediators such as histamine and degradative enzymes stored within the intracellular granules of mast cells are released into the surrounding tissues, resulting in symptoms of allergy after degranulation.

  • Reliability

    Professional Description:

    Reliability refers to the extent to which a measure or tool obtains similar results over repeated trials/ uses (i.e. the trustworthiness). There are several types of reliability: Test-retest Reliability - whether the self-administered measure obtains similar results when repeated by the same individuals over time. Inter-rater Reliability - whether the measure obtains similar results when rated or scored by different people. Intra-rater Reliability - whether the measure obtains similar results when rated or scored by the same person over time.

  • Renal solute load

    Professional Description:

    Renal solute load (RSL) refers to all solutes of endogenous or dietary origin that require excretion by the kidneys

  • Residual confounding

    Professional Description:

    the effect that remains after one has attempted to statistically control variables that cannot be measured perfectly. These unknown variables could obscure or exaggerate existing associations, and could significantly change conclusions made on the basis of epidemiological research

  • Resistance exercise

    Professional Description:

    Consists of activities that use muscular strength to move a weight or work against a resistant load. Examples include weight lifting and exercises using weight machines.

  • Response bias

    Professional Description:

    Factors or conditions that take place during the process of responding to surveys that affect the way responses are provided, leading to a nonrandom deviation of answers from their true value.

  • Resting energy expenditure

    Professional Description:

    Resting metabolic rate extrapolated to 24 hours to be more meaningful. (see resting metabolic rate).

  • Resting metabolic rate

    Professional Description:

    Energy expenditure under resting conditions.

  • Retinol

    Professional Description:

    Retinol, the dietary form of vitamin A, is a fat-soluble, antioxidant vitamin important in vision and bone growth. It belongs to the family of chemical compounds known as retinoids. Retinol is ingested in a precursor form; animal sources (milk and eggs) contain retinyl esters, whereas plants (carrots, spinach) contain carotenoids. Tissue cells convert these precursors to retinol, and then to either retinal or retinoic acid.

  • Retinol Activity Equivalent

    Professional Description:

    The Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for vitamin A are listed as Retinol Activity Equivalents (RAE) to account for the different activities of retinol and provitamin A carotenoids. Sometimes RDAs are also listed in International Units (IU) because food and some supplement labels list vitamin A content in International Units (1 RAE in micrograms = 3.3 IU).

  • Rhinoconjunctivitis

    Professional Description:

    An immunologically-mediated hypersensitivity reaction in the nose and conjunctiva. Most cases are IgE-mediated.

  • Rhinorrhea

    Professional Description:

    Runny nose with watery discharge characteristic of the common cold.

  • Rhodes Index

    Professional Description:

    a self-report form that has eight questions, each answered with a five-point Likert-type scale that measures the patient’s perceived duration, frequency and distress from nausea, vomiting and retching

  • Rickets

    Professional Description:

    Rickets is a childhood disease where growing bone matrix fails to mineralize, which can lead to skeletal deformities, bone pain and delayed motor development.

  • Risk Assessment

    Professional Description:

    An organized framework for evaluating scientific information, which has as its objective a characterization of the nature and likelihood of harm resulting from excess human exposure to an environmental agent (in this case, a dietary nutrient). It includes the development of both qualitative and quantitative expressions of risk. The process of risk assessment can be divided into four major steps; hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization.

  • Risk Characterization

    Professional Description:

    The final step in a risk assessment, which summarizes the conclusions from Steps 1 through 3 of the risk assessment and evaluates the risk. This step also includes a characterization of the degree of scientific confidence that can be placed in the UL.

  • Risk Management

    Professional Description:

    The process by which risk assessment results are integrated with other information to make decisions about the need for, method of, and extent of risk reduction. In addition to risk assessment results, risk management considers such issues as the public health significance of the risk, the technical feasibility of achieving various degrees of risk control, and the economic and social cost of this control.

  • Rosacea

    Professional Description:

    A chronic inflammatory disorder consisting of vascular and follicular dilation primarily of the skin of the nose, forehead and cheeks. It is characterized by erythema (redness due to capillary dilation), hyperplasia of sebaceous glands, papules and pustules, and telangiectasia (dilation of the vessels).

  • Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    Professional Description:

    The most common form of gastric by-pass surgery is a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. In this procedure the stomach is made smaller by creating a small pouch at the top of the stomach with surgical staples or a plastic band. The smaller stomach is connected directly to the middle portion of the small intestine (jejunum), bypassing the rest of the stomach and the upper portion of the small intestine (duodenum).

  • Salba®

    Professional Description:

    A gluten-free whole grain which is white in colour. It is obtained from the original herbaceous plant Salvia hispanica L., which is over 90 per cent black grain in colour and 10 per cent white grain (1). Salvia hispanica L. is also known as chia.

  • Salt Sensitive

    Professional Description:

    Salt sensitivity is expressed as either the reduction in blood pressure in response to a lower salt intake or the rise in blood pressure in response to sodium loading. Salt sensitivity differs among subgroups of the population and among individuals within a subgroup.

  • Sarcopenia

    Professional Description:

    Sarcopenia refers to a decline in muscle mass and strength.

  • Sarcopenic Obesity

    Professional Description:

    Sarcopenic obesity refers to a combination of sarcopenia and excess body fat.

  • SCORAD Index

    Professional Description:

    Severity Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis. Physician evaluation of atopic dermatitis based on extent of skin covered, intensity and subjective score of pruritis (itching) and loss of sleep. Mild AD <25; moderate 25-50; severe >50.

  • SCREEN©

    Professional Description:

    A screening index designed and validated by Prof. Heather Keller consisting of 15 questions covering issues that influence the nutritional health of seniors.

  • Screening Administrator

    Professional Description:

    Any person who assists in the process of administering and collecting information related to the administration of your screening initiative. This includes collection of the nutritional risk data, demographic information and potentially data for evaluation.

  • Seafood

    Professional Description:

    Any edible animal obtained from the sea, including fish, crustaceans, and molluscs.

  • Secondary Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

    Professional Description:

    Application of interventions to prevent the progression of cardiovascular disease.

  • Secondary lactase deficiency

    Professional Description:

    A lactase deficiency that results from small intestinal injury including acute chemotherapy, gastroenteritis, persistent diarrhea or small bowel overgrowth.

  • Selection bias

    Professional Description:

    A bias that may occur in research when the criteria used to recruit and enroll participants in different cohorts is inconsistent.

  • Selenocysteine

    Professional Description:

    Selenocysteine is the form of selenium that has biological activity in humans and is present in a number of selenoproteins. A selenoprotein is a protein that contains selenium in stoichiometric amounts.

  • Self monitoring

    Professional Description:

    Keeping detailed records of situations where unhealthy behaviours occur. Details of the precipitants, consequences and moderating factors are recorded and analyzed to determine goals for change.

  • sensitivity

    Professional Description:

    The sensitivity of a scale or index refers to the statistical likelihood that it will correctly identify individuals with the condition of interest. In the case of nutritional screening, the higher the sensitivity of the index the more likely it will correctly identify individuals who are genuinely "at risk". If an index is 100% sensitive there would be no false negatives.

  • Sensors

    Professional Description:

    People who are practical, detail-oriented and focus on facts and procedures.

  • Serum Fructosamine

    Professional Description:

    is a measure of glycemic control over a period of two to three weeks. It can be used if one needs to see the average glycemic control more quickly.

  • Severe Hypoglycemia

    Professional Description:

    Associated with need for assistance to treat and BG level < 2.8 mmo/L.

  • Severe Pre-eclampsia

    Professional Description:

    Blood pressure: 160 mm Hg or higher systolic or 110 mm Hg or higher diastolic on two occasions at least 6 hours apart in a woman on bed rest / Proteinuria: 5 g or higher in a 24-hour urine collection or 3+ on urine dipstick testing of two random urine samples collected at least 4 hours apart / Other features: oliguria (less than 500 mL in 24 hours), cerebral or visual disturbances, pulmonary edema or cyanosis, epigastric or right upper-quadrant pain, elevated liver enzymes, thrombocytopenia, or intrauterine growth restriction.

  • Short chain fatty acid

    Professional Description:

    End product of bacterial hydrolysis and fermentation of complex carbohydrate that reaches the colon.

  • Shuttle run test

    Professional Description:

    Also commonly known as the beep test, requires the participant to run back and forth over a 20 meter marked distance in time with recorded beeps until they fail to reach the mark at the “beep” on a certain (usually three) consecutive laps or shuttles.

  • Shwachman score

    Professional Description:

    An overall clinical scoring system in CF, where an increase in the score indicates improvement in clinical conditions.

  • Significant Ethnic Effect

    Professional Description:

    A result which indicates that one of the ethnic groups’ preferences for a competency differed significantly from the average preference for that competency across all three ethnic groups.

  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

    Professional Description:

    A genetic variation caused by a change in a single DNA nucleotide; most of the variation among individuals results from SNPs. The number of different SNPs in the human population is thought to be 6 million.

  • Skewed Distribution

    Professional Description:

    If the distribution of requirements is skewed, the median will not equal the mean.

  • Skin exposure

    Professional Description:

    means exposure of skin, face and arms or an equivalent surface area of skin. The time involved is five to 15 minutes per day in summer months for people with light skin colour.

  • Skin Prick Test

    Professional Description:

    The skin test is designed to detect any IgE that has been made by the immune system in a previous response to the allergen. A drop of commercial allergen extract is placed onto the surface and the skin underneath is pricked with a lancet.

  • Skin rash

    Professional Description:

    A lay term for a skin eruption.

  • Skin testing

    Professional Description:

    The skin test is a method of measuring the patient's level of IgE antibodies to specific allergens. Using diluted solutions of specific allergens, the physician either injects the patient with the solutions (intradermal test), or scratches (scratch test) or pricks the skin with a sharp lancet (prick test) through the allergen drop. A positive reaction appears as a small raised area surrounded by a flat red area on the skin (the wheal and flare reaction). A positive reaction to the skin test, especially with food allergens, does not always mean that the patient is will develop symptoms when the food is eaten.

  • Slow release

    Professional Description:

    When a vitamin or mineral has a time-release factor, it means that the ingredients have been scientifically coated and calibrated in tiny "memory granules" that are released over a period of 2-6 hours. The advantage of time release is it gives the body the vitamin or mineral gradually instead of all at one time.

  • Social Cognitive Theory

    Professional Description:

    The SCT defines human behavior as a reciprocal interaction of personal factors, behaviour, and the environment

  • Social Marketing

    Professional Description:

    the application of commercial marketing concepts and techniques to target populations to achieve the goal of positive social change.

  • Soiling

    Professional Description:

    involuntary passage of stool into places, and at times, that are socially inappropriate. It is often associated with fecal impaction.

  • Soluble Fibre

    Professional Description:

    Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion which slows digestion. Soluble fiber is found in oat bran, barley, nuts, seeds, beans, lentils, peas, and some fruits and vegetables.

  • Spearman rank

    Professional Description:

    Spearman rank correlation coefficient is usually calculated on occasions when it is not convenient, economic, or even possible to give actual values to variables, but only to assign a rank order to instances of each variable. It may also be a better indicator that a relationship exists between two variables when the relationship is non-linear

  • Specificity

    Professional Description:

    The specificity of a scale or index refers to the statistical likelihood that it will correctly identify individuals who do not have the condition of interest. In the case of nutritional screening, the higher the specificity of the index the more likely it will correctly identify individuals who are genuinely not "at risk". If an index is 100% specific there would be no false positives.

  • Spermatozoa

    Professional Description:

    The male gamete or sex cell that contains the genetic information to be transmitted by the male and is able to effect zygosis with an oocyte.

  • Splanchnic blood flow

    Professional Description:

    Blood flow through major vessels

  • Splinter hemorrhage

    Professional Description:

    Multiple tiny longitudinal subungual hemorrhages under a finger or a toenail.

  • Sputum

    Professional Description:

    Mucus and other matter that is brought up from the lungs by coughing.

  • Stakeholders

    Professional Description:

    Individuals or groups providing support and services to seniors in any community.

  • Standard Deviation

    Professional Description:

    Standard deviation is the statistical measure of variability used in describing normal distribution.

  • Standard Deviation of the Difference

    Professional Description:

    The standard deviation of a distribution is simply the square root of the variance. This is used when we need to know how much the difference between two numbers can vary. For example, we recognize that estimates of both requirement and intake can vary and thus the difference between the two numbers can also vary. We need to know how much this difference could vary - this is the standard deviation of the difference.

  • Standard self management diabetes education

    Professional Description:

    Diabetes education to support self managment which may include tools such as blood glucose monitoring, medication delivery, discussion of treatment targets, carbohydrate counting, menu planning and exercise. These tools do not include education techniques that use the internet as a mode of delivery.

  • Status asthmaticus

    Professional Description:

    A particularly severe episode of asthma, usually requiring hospitalization, that does not respond adequately to ordinary therapeutic measures

  • Steatorrhea

    Professional Description:

    An abnormal amount of fat in the feces. Normal fecal fat excretion is ≤7 g/day. In CF, the treatment goal for steatorrhea is to attain a fecal fat excretion rate of <15 g/day. Steatorrhea is associated with an increased risk for malabsorption of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K.

  • Stimulus control

    Professional Description:

    The process of identifying and modifying stimuli (e.g. situations, times, people, emotions) that elicit unhealthy eating behaviour.

  • Stomatitis

    Professional Description:

    Stomatitis is an inflammation of the mucosal lining of the mouth. There are many possible causes, including infections (bacterial, fungal, or viral), vitamin deficiencies, lead and mercury poisoning and local irritation or trauma (such as from cheek biting, or poorly fitting dentures). It can also be a side-effect of radiation or chemotherapy for cancer. Stomatitis generally resolves once the underlying cause is addressed.

  • Streptococci mutans

    Professional Description:

    The major contributor to tooth decay. S. mutans can grow under conditions that would kill other bacteria. S. mutans is foudn mostly on tooth surfaces. One tooth may have a large number of these bacteria, while the tooth next to it may have only a small number. The bacteria are most concentrated int he crevices, pits and fissues that are a normal part of the tteth and surrounding structures.

  • Stress Factor

    Professional Description:

    The measured energy expenditure divided by the predicted energy expenditure.

  • Success indicators

    Professional Description:

    Success indicators are measures that link directly to the success of a project.

  • Summative evaluation

    Professional Description:

    Evaluation occurring at the end of learning experiences or programs. In the context of preceptoring, to assess student completion of learning activities and performance objectives.

  • Susceptibility Genes

    Professional Description:

    Genes with functional variants that affect the causes of disease, they are routinely being identified for simple mendelian (inherited) diseases and more common genetic disorders.

  • Symmetrical Distribution

    Professional Description:

    If the distribution of requirements is symmetrical, the median is equal to the mean.

  • Synbiotic

    Professional Description:

    A mixture of prebiotics and probiotics that beneficially effect the host by improving the survival and implantation of live microbial dietary supplements in the gastrointestinal tract by selectively stimulating the growth and/or by activating the metabolism of one or a limited number of health-promoting bacteria, and thus improving host welfare.

  • Synovial fluid

    Professional Description:

    Clear viscid lubricating fluid of the joint, bursae, and tendon sheaths, secreted by the synovial membrane of a joint. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and electrolytes.

  • Systematic review

    Professional Description:

    A form of structure literature review that addresses a question that is formulated to be answered by analysis of evidence, and involves objective means of searching the literature, applying predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria to this literature, critically appraising the relevant literature, and extraction and synthesis of data from evidence base to formulate findings.

  • Systolic Blood Pressure

    Professional Description:

    Blood pressure is a measurement of the force applied to the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood through the body. The pressure is determined by the force and amount of blood pumped, and the size and flexibility of the arteries. Blood pressure readings are usually given as 2 numbers: for example, 110 over 70 (written as 110/70). The first number is the systolic blood pressure reading, and it represents the maximum pressure exerted when the heart contracts. The second number is the diastolic blood pressure reading, and it represents the pressure in the arteries when the heart is at rest.

  • tannins

    Professional Description:

    The group of astringent and bitter compounds found in the seeds and skins of grapes which slow oxidation and promote aging.

  • Target audience

    Professional Description:

    Selected group of people who share similar needs or demographic characteristics such as age, income, sex, education or occupation and best represent the most likely potential recipients of an organization's message.

  • Telogen effluvium

    Professional Description:

    An increased transient shedding of normal club hairs by the premature development of telogen in anagen follicles.

  • Teratogenic

    Professional Description:

    Anything which produces nonheritable birth defects is said to be teratogenic.

  • Teratozoospermia

    Professional Description:

    A condition characterized by the presence of malformed spermatozoa in the semen.

  • Terry's nail

    Professional Description:

    A condition where the nails look opaque but the tip has a dark band.

  • tetrahydrocannabinol

    Professional Description:

    The psychoactive ingredient of the Cannabis plant family which occurs naturally in hemp plant resins.

  • Th1/Th2 balance

    Professional Description:

    The balance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines determines whether the response against a food will result in allergy

  • Th1/Th2 cytokines

    Professional Description:

    Th2 cytokines produced in the Th(T helper cell)2 response of T-cell lymphocytes to allergens, mediate the production of IgE, and thus the allergic response. Th1 cytokines mediate the protective response against, for example, infective micro-organisms.

  • Th2 cytokine predominance

    Professional Description:

    Allergy occurs when the Th2 response dominates.

  • The 5 A's model

    Professional Description:

    identifies five components (assess, advise, agree, assist, and arrange) that can be sequenced to help patients address unhealthy behaviours 'Assess' dietary practices and related risk factors, 'Advise' to change dietary practices, 'Agree' on individual diet change goals, 'Assist' to change dietary practices or address motivational barriers, and 'Arrange' regular follow-up and support or refer to more intensive behavioral nutritional counseling (e.g., medical nutrition therapy) if needed.

  • Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Professional Description:

    The theory of planned behavior is a theory about the link between attitudes and behavior. The theory of planned behavior holds that human action is guided by three kinds of considerations: Beliefs about the likely outcomes of the behavior and the evaluations of these outcomes (behavioral beliefs) / Beliefs about the normative expectations of others and motivation to comply with these expectations (normative beliefs) / Beliefs about the presence of factors that may facilitate or impede performance of the behavior and the perceived power of these factors (control beliefs).

  • Thermic effect of food

    Professional Description:

    The act of food consumption eliciting an increase in basal energy expenditure, determined primarily by the amount and composition of the foods consumed, mainly due to the metabolic costs incurred in handling and storing ingested nutrients

  • Thermoregulation

    Professional Description:

    The process by which humans regulate their body temperature within narrow limits.

  • Thinkers

    Professional Description:

    People who are skeptical and tend to make decisions based on logic and rules

  • Threshold Dose

    Professional Description:

    The dose that elicits allergic reactions in a given (small) proportion of susceptible patients

  • Thrombocytopenia

    Professional Description:

    Any disorder where there is an abnormally low amount of platelets.

  • Thyroglobulin

    Professional Description:

    Thyroglobulin is an iodine-containing protein of the thyroid gland that yields thyroxine and triiodothyronine on proteolysis.

  • Thyroid stimulating hormone

    Professional Description:

    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is a glycoprotein hormone produced by the anterior lobe of the hypophysis that stimulates the growth and function of the thyroid gland. TSH is also a diagnostic test to differentiate between primary and secondary hypothyroidism. Also called thyrotropin.

  • Thyroxine

    Professional Description:

    Thyroxine, also known as T4, is an iodine-containing hormone produced by the thyroid gland and also produced synthetically to treat hypothyroidism.

  • Time to exhaustion

    Professional Description:

    The time to fatigue at a fixed exercise intensity or pace also known as endurance capacity.

  • Time trial

    Professional Description:

    The time taken to complete a prescribed distance or work load (or the amount of distance covered or work completed in a set amount of time); also known as performance trial.

  • Tocopherols

    Professional Description:

    Tocopherols are characterized by a substituted, hydroxylated ring system (chromanol ring) with a long, saturated (phytyl) side chain. Of the four tocopherols - alpha, beta, gamma and delta, only the alpha-tocopherol has biologic activity and is classified as "vitamin E".

  • Tocotrienols

    Professional Description:

    Tocotrienols are similar in structure to tocopherols, except that the side chain is unsaturated. There are four tocotrienols - alpha, beta, gamma and delta - but none of these have significant biological activity, and are no longer classified as "vitamin E".

  • Tolerable Upper Intake Level

    Professional Description:

    The highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. As intake increases above the UL, the potential risk of adverse effects increases.

  • Tool Sensitivity

    Professional Description:

    a tools ability to correctly identify individuals truly at nutritional risk, i.e., true positives

  • Tool Specificity

    Professional Description:

    measures the tool’s ability to identify correctly the persons who are at nutritional risk, i.e., true negatives

  • Total breastmilk

    Professional Description:

    no food or liquid other than breastmilk, not even water, is given to the infant from birth by the mother, health care provider, or family member/supporter during the past 7 days.

  • Total Cholesterol/HDL Ratio

    Professional Description:

    This ratio shows how high the HDL cholesterol is relative to the overall cholesterol level. The total cholesterol/HDL ratio is calculated by dividing the total cholesterol by the HDL cholesterol.

  • Total energy expenditure

    Professional Description:

    The sum of basal energy expenditure, the thermic effect of food, physical activity level and thermoregulation.

  • Total fibre

    Professional Description:

    sum of dietary fibre and functional fibre.

  • Total Glutathione (GSH + GSSG)

    Professional Description:

    Refers to the amount of both glutathione (GSH) and its oxidized form, glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Most cellular glutathione is present in the cytosol.

  • Total IgE level

    Professional Description:

    The quantity of IgE antibodies in a subject’s serum, without reference to any specific antigen to which the IgE may be formed

  • Total Screen Time

    Professional Description:

    Refers to all time spent in front of a "flickering screen" such as television, computer, VCR/DVD player, and video games.

  • total serum iron binding capacity

    Professional Description:

    This is a blood test that measures the total iron binding capacity (TIBC) as an indirect measure of transferrin.

  • Transcription

    Professional Description:

    The process by which the information stored in DNA is converted into messenger RNA.

  • Transferrin

    Professional Description:

    A beta globulin in blood plasma capable of combining with ferric ions and transporting iron in the body -- called also siderophilin

  • Translation

    Professional Description:

    The process by which the information in messenger RNA directs the synthesis of proteins; this process involves messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA).

  • Translation Initiation

    Professional Description:

    The start of the translation process in the cytoplasm where the mRNA attaches to ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and then one codon at a time systematically directs the assembly of amino acid molecules into a protein.

  • Triiodothyronine

    Professional Description:

    Triiodothyronine, also known as T3, is an iodine-containing thyroid hormone derived from thyroxine.

  • Type I allergies

    Professional Description:

    IgE-mediated hypersensitivity

  • Type I muscle fibre

    Professional Description:

    Skeletal muscle fibres that generate energy mainly through the aerobic energy transfer system and are selectively recruited in aerobic activities. It is also referred to as slow twitch or slow oxidative muscle fibres.

  • Type II muscle fibre

    Professional Description:

    Skeletal muscle fibres that produce energy rapidly and are active in powerful, quick actions. They are sub-classified as types IIa and IIb and are also referred to as fast twitch or fast glycolytic or fast-oxidative-glycolytic muscle fibres.

  • Uncertainty Factor

    Professional Description:

    A number by which the NOAEL (or LOAEL) is divided to obtain the UL. UFs are used in risk assessments to deal with gaps in data (for example, data uncertainties) and knowledge (for example, model uncertainties). The size of the UF varies depending on the confidence in the data and the nature of the adverse effect.

  • Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale

    Professional Description:

    A scale to evaluate symptom severity that includes an evaluation of mentation, behaviour and mood; activities of daily living; motor examination; and complications of therapy.

  • Unproven methods

    Professional Description:

    Unproven methods are procedures used in diagnosis and treatment that lack scientific credibility and have not been shown to have clinical efficacy.

  • Urine color chart

    Professional Description:

    A urine color chart is a tool to measure hydration status. Urine color is graded using the chart which has eight colors to assess urine color ranging from pale straw to greenish brown.

  • Urine specific gravity

    Professional Description:

    The density of urine compared to the density of water. The higher the value above 1.000 the more concentrated the sample. A urine specific gravity in excess of 1.020 is commonly used as the cut-off for euhydration.

  • Urticaria

    Professional Description:

    Urticaria is a skin condition, common known as hives, characterized by the development of itchy, raised white lumps surrounded by an area of red inflammation.

  • US FDA regulations

    Professional Description:

    US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) review of the safety and efficacy of dietary supplements is significantly less extensive than for drugs and foods. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 classify herbal products as dietary supplements. The labeling for dietary supplements cannot make claims on therapeutic efficacy, only claims of effects on body structure or function. (Ex: a manufacturer can claim that Asian ginseng gives the body energy but cannot claim that it treats chronic fatigue syndrome) The 1994 Act also established the Office of Dietary and Herbal Supplements at the National Institutes of Health, and charged it with conducting scientific research on dietary supplements. The FDA’s responsibilities are limited to overseeing the safety of supplements, establishing good manufacturer practices (GMPs) and ensuring that the product’s labeling, package inserts and literature is truthful. The FDA is not able to authorize or require testing of supplements prior

  • Usual Intake

    Professional Description:

    This is the individual's average intake over a long period of time. For most individuals, intakes vary tremendously from one day to the next, so intake of a nutrient on any one day (or three days, or seven days), will not reflect their "usual" long-term intake. Moreover, the number of days needed to accurately assess usual intake differs among nutrients, as well as among individuals.

  • V02max

    Professional Description:

    Also known as maximal oxygen uptake or consumption. Determined during a graded exercise test (progressive intensity) and determined as the point where oxygen uptake plateaus and shows no further increases or increases only slightly with an additional workload or an increase in exercise intensity.

  • V02peak

    Professional Description:

    Also known as peak oxygen uptake or consumption. Determined when the plateau (or levelling off) in oxygen uptake during the graded exercise test of maximal oxygen consumption is not achieved; whether due to factors such as local muscular factors (instead of circulatory). The highest value of oxygen uptake measured during the test is known as V02peak.

  • Validity

    Professional Description:

    Validity refers to the extent to which a measure or tool accurately represents what it is supposed to. There are several types of validity: Face Validity - whether the items on the measure make sense. Convergent Validity - whether the measure correlates with other constructs. Criterion Validity - whether the measure correlates with a gold-standard measurement of a construct. E.g. Standing height would be a criteria for knee height

  • Value priced products

    Professional Description:

    There are products available to parents at a reduced cost compared to name brand infant formulas.

  • Variance of Usual Intakes

    Professional Description:

    In the statistical sense, reflects the spread of the distribution of usual intakes or requirements on both sides of the mean intake or requirement. When the variance of a distribution is low, the likelihood of seeing values that are far away from the mean is low; in contrast, when the variance is large, the likelihood of seeing values that are far away from the mean is high. For usual intakes and requirements, variance reflects the person-to-person variability in the group.

  • Varicocele

    Professional Description:

    A condition manifested by abnormal dilation of the veins of the spermatic cord, caused by incompetent valves in the internal spermatic vein, and resulting in impaired drainage of blood into the spermatic cord veins when the patient assumes the upright position.

  • Vegan

    Professional Description:

    An eating pattern based on grains, vegetables, legumes, seeds, nuts, but excludes meat, fish or fowl, dairy and eggs or products containing these foods.

  • vegetarian

    Professional Description:

    An eating pattern that exludes animal and fish products.

  • Very Low Birth Weight

    Professional Description:

    An infant weighing 1500 grams or less.

  • Vigorous-intensity exercise

    Professional Description:

    When exercise is at > 60% of VO2max (>70% of person’s maximum heart rate, glucose uptake increased by 5-6mg per kg per minute). Examples include brisk walking up an incline, jogging, aerobics, hockey, basketball, fast swimming, fast dancing.

  • Vitamin D

    Professional Description:

    includes vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol); also referred to as native or nutritional vitamin D.

  • Vitamin E

    Professional Description:

    Conversion factors for d-alpha-tocohopherol (natural vitamin E): - IU x 0.67 = mg d-alpha-tocopherol - mg alpha-tocopherol x 1.5 = IU Conversion factors for dl-alpha-tocopherol (synthetic vitamin E): - IU x 0.45 = mg dl-alpha-tocopherol - mg dl-alpha-tocopherol x 2.2 = IU

  • Vomiting

    Professional Description:

    Expulsion of the refluxed gastric contents from the mouth.

  • Waist circumference

    Professional Description:

    A simple anthropometric measure used to determine an approximate index of the absolute amount of abdominal fat, intra-abdominal fat mass and total body fat.

  • Waist-to-hip ratio

    Professional Description:

    An anthropometric measure that provides and estimate of the relative accumulation of abdominal fat. It is a calculation of the waist circumference divided by hip circumference.

  • Wernicke's encephalopathy

    Professional Description:

    also called Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a brain disorder involving loss of specific brain functions caused by a thiamine deficiency

  • Wheal

    Professional Description:

    Smooth, slightly elevated area on the skin, paler or redder than the surrounding area. Caused by the release of histamine, and its action on the local tissues. The area is often itchy, and the wheal may change in size and shape. Usually disappears within a few hours.

  • Wheal and flare

    Professional Description:

    A positive response to a skin test. The wheal is a central 'blister' which is surrounded by a flat reddened area (the flare). The reaction is caused by the release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators from mast cells in the skin in response to the application of the matching (homologous) antigen (allergen) applied in the test reagent.

  • Wheeze

    Professional Description:

    A continuous musical sound caused by narrowing of the lumen of a respiratory passageway. Often noted only by the use of a stethoscope, it occurs in asthma, croup, hay fever, mitral stenosis, and bronchitis. It may result from asthma, tumours, foreign body airway obstructions, bronchial spasm, pulmonary infections, emphysema and other chronic obstructive lung diseases, or pulmonary edema.

  • Whipple Procedure

    Professional Description:

    also called a pancreaticoduodenectomy, it is generally the removal of the gallbladder, common bile duct, part of the duodenum, and the head of the pancreas

  • White matter lesions

    Professional Description:

    areas of pathologically altered tissue in the brain

  • Wild Type

    Professional Description:

    The genotype that predominates in a natural population of organisms.

  • Wingate

    Professional Description:

    Thirty seconds of all-out supermaximal exercise performed on either an arm-crank or leg-cycle ergometer which is a performance test for anaerobic power.

  • Working memory

    Professional Description:

    Refers to memory that is used to plan and carry out behaviour.

  • Z-scores

    Professional Description:

    z-scores describe how far a measurement is from the mean (average) or median; also referred to as standard deviation (SD) scores.