Designed in a question and answer format, the Knowledge Pathway represents a collection of Practice Questions, evidence-based answers, references, Practice Guidance Toolkits, Evidence Summaries, Backgrounds, Tools and Resources, and other related materials on a particular topic.
Knowledge Pathways are organized into four practice categories: Population Heath/Lifecycle, Health Condition/Disease, Food Nutrients, Professional Practice.
Generally formulated using the PICO approach (Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome), Practice Questions reflect the everyday practice situations faced by dietitians.
Practice Question Subcategories
To help you quickly find a relevant question, practice questions are organized by subcategories: Assessment, Diagnosis, Intervention, Monitoring, Evaluation (ADIME) and Other. Links are also provided to related Practice Questions from other Knowledge Pathways.
Key Practice Point
Based on a synthesis of the most valid, important and applicable evidence, the Key Practice Points provide a succinct evidence-based recommendation or “answer” to a dietetics practice question. Each key practice point is graded (A, B, C or D) based on the strength of the evidence used to formulate it.
Recommendations are clear, concise and actionable advice on whether to implement an intervention and, if relevant, under what conditions and how.
GRADE recommendations include five pieces of information:
1. the intervention and what it was compared to
2. the direction of the recommendation, i.e. for or against the intervention
3. the specific population of interest, which may also include a specific condition
4. the strength of the recommendation, i.e. “Strong” or “Conditional”
5. the overall quality of evidence and its corresponding symbol, i.e. “Very Low” ⊕⊝⊝⊝, “Low” ⊕⊕⊝⊝, “Moderate” ⊕⊕⊕⊝, “High”. ⊕⊕⊕⊕
Most recommendations will be one sentence long.
Remarks describe the justification for the recommendation and are concise, written in an active voice, and present information that would be most useful and relevant to a client.
A summary of the critically appraised evidence including type study, the population studied, number of subjects, methods used, main findings and study limitations.
References are hyperlinked to PubMed abstracts, if applicable, or to full articles or practice guidelines, if the PubMed link is not available.
Practice-Based Evidence in Nutrition® [PEN] is an innovative knowledge translation tool designed to put you on the leading edge of evidence-based practice in food and nutrition. PEN supports decision-making for:
- clinicians through best practice point-of-care guidance to improve inpatient and outpatient health outcomes and reduce health care costs
- public health/community practitioners through complete population health and lifecycle practice guidance based on best evidence
- university educators as a teaching tool in critical appraisal and evidence-based decision making
- food service administrators through up-to-date best evidence in issues such as food safety and nutrient analysis software
- policy-makers as an evidence-based reference to guide policy development
- food manufacturers for a synthesis of latest research on consumers' understanding of food labels or health claims.
Key features of PEN that make it your first choice for practice guidance:
Provides "general knowledge" information about a topic/condition/issue that will be useful to new practitioners or will serve as a refresher for more experienced health professionals.
Client Tools and Resources
With just a click of your mouse, links you to tools and resources for clients that have been reviewed with the PEN System evidence.
Enables you to contact the PEN® Team for technical, content or subscription issues or to provide feedback.
Lets you update your personal profile with changes to your contact information to ensure receipt of messaging from the PEN System.
My PEN® Content Alerts allow you to sign up for monthly or quarterly e-mail alerts about new and updated content in your preferred Knowledge Pathways.
You can save your favourite PEN website knowledge objects (Knowledge Pathways, Backgrounds, Practice Guidance Toolkits, and tools and resources) in one place.
Enables you to download client and practitioner-tested tools designed according to the best evidence in adult education. PEN client handouts may be customized with your own logo and contact information. Resources may also be emailed from PEN System directly to your client or colleague. Some of these handouts are available in various languages and have been adapted for multi-cultural foods and dietary practices.
This is a bimonthly e-newsletter shared with the global PEN Community and created to help dietitians position themselves as leaders in evidence-based nutrition practice. In addition, users of the PEN System will find articles on the new evidence, resources and features available and how to maximize one’s use of the PEN System.
Powerful Search Capabilities
Helps you find what you are looking for quickly and easily using any of three methods: search by key words, narrow your search using the Advanced Search feature, or browse the Table of Contents.
Practice Guidance Toolkit
Provides easy access to practice information through separate Nutrition Care Process sections and incorporating Nutrition Care Process Terminology (NCPT).
Professional Tools and Resources
Links you to the best in evidence-based practice guidance professional tools and resources with just a click of your mouse.
Provides instant definitions of terms through embedded links.
Can't find an answer to your practice question? Have a suggestion for new content? This feature enables you to contribute to the PEN System’s database to build future content for the service.
Summary of Recommendations and Evidence
Provides an overview of key practice points (recommendation, evidence summary and grades of evidence) in a Knowledge Pathway.
Keeps you abreast of new content added to the PEN System since your last visit and what's on the horizon for new and enhanced knowledge pathway content.
Updated November 2018