Chronic Kidney Disease Background 

Disease Etiology
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined by Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) as a variety of abnormalities of kidney structure or function that impact health, and are present for >3 months (1). CKD differs from acute kidney injury (AKI), which is characterized by an acute reduction in kidney function and possible reversibility. Individuals with CKD may have episodes of AKI (2). 

Causes of CKD include: glomerular diseases (such as diabetes,

Continue Reading!

Login or signup to access PEN® content.

start free trial

Are you an existing member? Login here.