Choline

Summary of Recommendations and Evidence


 
[B] The following conclusions are supported by fair evidence:
Using food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) and 24-hour recalls to determine dietary choline intake, observational studies have found that the average intake of North American adult men and women is below the current recommended AI. These results have been confirmed by observational studies performed in Dutch and Taiwanese populations.
 
[C] The following conclusions are supported by limited evidence or expert opinion:
Using food
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