Summary of Recommendations and Evidence


[A] The following conclusions are supported by good evidence:

Reducing sun exposure by any means including clothing, sunscreens or staying indoors, can prevent vitamin D synthesis in the skin. If vitamin D levels are low, there is a risk for osteoporosis; if the deficiency is severe, osteomalacia may occur.

For the treatment and the prevention of osteoporosis in older adults (>50 years of age) with low vitamin B12 status, an adequate intake of vitamin B12 from supplements or fortified

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