Heart failure (HF) is the end-stage of many cardiovascular diseases (1,2). Typical symptoms include breathlessness, ankle swelling and fatigue (1). Identifying the underlying cause is essential for diagnosis and treatment (1,2). Treatment may include diet and lifestyle changes, medications, device therapy such as implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and cardiac transplantation (3).
This toolkit discusses the following key nutrition issues:
- dietary management of HF: