C

Select a term to view the definition:
  • Calcimimetics

    Professional Description:

    Drugs that mimic calcium and that are used to treat hyperparathyroidism.

  • Carotenoids

    Professional Description:

    Carotenoids are a family of pigmented compounds found in plants.

  • Case Reports

    Professional Description:

    This is a description of individual people, does not provide any comparison group and is therefore unable to satisfy the requirement that treatment and control groups share a similar prognosis.

  • Case Series

    Professional Description:

    A study reporting on a consecutive collection of patients treated in a similar manner, without a control group. For example, a clinician might describe the characteristics of an outcome for 25 consecutive patients with diabetes who received education for prevention of foot ulcers.

  • Case-control Studies

    Professional Description:

    These studies usually look at rare outcomes or those outcomes that take a long time to develop. People already with the targeted outcome are identified, then the investigator chooses the controls – people who as a group, are reasonably similar to the cases with respect to the important determinants of outcome such as age, sex and concurrent medical conditions but who have not suffered the target outcomes.

  • Channeling Effect

    Professional Description:

    Tendency of clinicians to prescribe treatment based on a patient’s prognosis. As a result of the behavior, in observational studies, treated patients are more likely to be high risk patients than untreated patients, leading to biased estimate of treatment effect.

  • Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    Professional Description:

    Chlorella pyrenoidosa is a unicellular fresh water green alga rich in proteins, vitamins, and minerals.

  • Chromium

    Professional Description:

    An essential mineral required by the human body for normal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Chromium (Cr3+) is found in foods and supplements and is available in several forms.

  • Chromosome

    Professional Description:

    A structure of DNA and protein that is found in the cell nucleus. Each chromosome contains hundreds or thousands of the genes that form an individual''s hereditary blueprint. Chromosomes occur in pairs: one obtained from the mother; the other from the father, for a total of 23 pairs.

  • Client History

    Professional Description:

    (IDNT) Client history includes current and past information related to personal, medical, family and social history.

  • Clinical Practice Guidelines

    Professional Description:

    A strategy for changing clinician behavior. Systematically developed statements or recommendations to assist practitioner and patient decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. They present indications for performing a test, procedure, or intervention, or the proper management for specific clinical problems. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies, institutions, organizations such as professional societies or governing boards, or by convening expert panels.

  • Clinical Trial

    Professional Description:

    An experiment to compare the effects of two or more healthcare interventions. Clinical trial is an umbrella term for a variety of designs of healthcare trials, including uncontrolled trials, controlled trials, and randomized controlled trials.

  • Coefficient of variation

    Professional Description:

    The coefficient of variation is the standard deviation of the requirement divided by the mean requirement (SD/Mean), and expressed as a percentage (CV=SD/Mean x 100). It is a term used to describe variability of observations in a population.

  • Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument

    Professional Description:

    The Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI)has a score range of 0 to 100 and provides quantitative assessment on attention, concentration, orientation, short-term memory, long-term memory, language abilities, visual construction, list-generating fluency, abstraction, and judgment.

  • Cognitive interviewing techniques

    Professional Description:

    Cognitive interviewing technique is a method to obtain informant perceptions about a topic or issue that involves asking informants to verbalize what comes to mind as they read/use a section of or an entire resource.

  • Cohort

    Professional Description:

    A group of persons with a common characteristic or set of characteristics. Typically, the group is followed for a specified period of time to determine the incidence of a disorder or complications of an established disorder (prognosis).

  • Cohort Studies

    Professional Description:

    The investigator identifies exposed and non-exposed groups of people, each a cohort, and then follows them forward in time, monitoring the occurrence of the predicted outcome.

  • Co-interventions

    Professional Description:

    Intervention other than intervention under study that may be differentially applied to intervention and control groups and, thus, potentially bias the results of a study.

  • Cole criteria

    Professional Description:

    Cole criteria are BMI references using data from six countries. Cole, et al. drew centile curves that at age 18 years passed through the cut-off points of 25 and 30 kg/m2 for adult overweight and obesity. Children with a BMI of 25 or 30 at the extrapolated age of 18 were classified as overweight or obese, respectively.

  • Colony forming units

    Professional Description:

    Colony forming units are the number of bacteria in a given sample size that is viable (i.e. capable of initiating the development of a colony).

  • Color message

    Professional Description:

    A color message is the first part of a key message that provides context and perspective, followed by substantiating facts.

  • Commensal

    Professional Description:

    Commensal is an organism living on or within another, but not causing injury to the host.

  • Community-based interventions

    Professional Description:

    A community-based intervention is an intervention that is implemented within one or more community groups (ad hoc or formal), that promotes change through policy, social marketing, and/or environmental changes, and that targeted members of certain groups or community members at large.

  • Co-morbidity

    Professional Description:

    Disease(s) that coexist(s) in study participants in addition to the index condition that is the subject of the study.

  • Complementary feeding

    Professional Description:

    Complementary feeding is defined by the World Health Organization as "the transition from exclusive breastfeeding to family foods". Complementary feeding may also be referred to as weaning foods.

  • Computer-assisted dietary assessment

    Professional Description:

    A computer-assisted dietary assessment is when a health professional, practitioner or researcher utilizes a nutrient analysis program to calculate client-reported food intake which may be compared to recommended intakes (DRIs) and related to client personal, anthropometric and other data.

  • Computer-tailored information

    Professional Description:

    In computer-tailored information, personal dietary intakes can be compared with recommended intake levels (personal feedback), with the consumption patterns of peers (normative feedback) and with perceived risk behavior.

  • Confidence Interval

    Professional Description:

    Represents a range of values within which one can be confident that a population parameter is estimated; the range within which the truth plausibility lies; indicates the reliability of an estimate. The smaller the sample size, the wider the confidence interval. As the sample size gets very large, we become increasingly certain that the truth is not far from the point estimate (although the true value lies somewhere in the neighborhood, it is unlikely to be precisely correct) calculated in the experiment and the confidence interval is smaller.

  • Confounder

    Professional Description:

    1. a factor that distorts the true relationship of the study variable of interest by virtue of also being related to the outcome of interest. Confounders are often unequally distributed among the groups being compared. Randomized studies are less likely to have their results distorted by confounders than are observational studies. 2. A factor that is associated with the outcome of interest and is differentially distributed in patients exposed and unexposed to the outcome of interest.

  • Conjunctivitis

    Professional Description:

    Conjuctivitis is the inflammation of the conjunctivae (membrane covering the front of the eye and lining of the eyelids) causing redness, swelling, and a watery discharge.

  • Consecutive Sample

    Professional Description:

    A sample in which all potentially eligible patients seen over a period of time are enrolled.

  • Construct Validity

    Professional Description:

    A construct is a theoretically derived notion of the domain(s) we wish to measure. An understanding of the construct will lead to expectations about how an instrument should behave if it is valid. Construct validity therefore involves comparisons between measures, and examination of the logical relationships, which should exist between a measure and characteristics of patients and patient groups.

  • Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion

    Professional Description:

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion is a method of insulin delivery. Insulin is delivered by a microcomputer (pump) in very small amounts from a syringe reservoir through a thin tube (infusion set) that is connected to a needle or cannula which is inserted into the subcutaneous tissue. The pump is programmed to deliver a continuous infusion of basal insulin according to physiological needs and then programmed to deliver boluses of fast or rapid-acting insulin as needed to cover carbohydrate intake or to correct hyperglycemia.

  • Continuous Variables

    Professional Description:

    A variable that can theoretically take any value and in practice can take a large number of values with small differences between them (e.g. height). Continuous variables are also sometimes called interval data.

  • Control Group

    Professional Description:

    A group that does not receive the experimental intervention. In many studies, the control group receives either usual care or a placebo.

  • Controlled Trial

    Professional Description:

    Experiment in which individuals are randomly allocated to receive or not receive an experimental preventive, therapeutic, or diagnostic procedure and then followed to determine the effect of the intervention.

  • Convenience Sample

    Professional Description:

    Individuals or groups selected at the convenience of the investigator or primarily because they were available at a convenient time or place.

  • Cost-Benefit Analysis

    Professional Description:

    An economic analysis in which both the costs and the consequences (including increases in the length and quality of life) are expressed in monetary terms.

  • Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    Professional Description:

    An economic analysis in which the consequences are expressed in natural units. Examples include cost per life saved or cost per unit of blood pressure lowered.

  • Craniotabes

    Professional Description:

    Craniotabes is the softening of the skull.

  • C-reactive protein

    Professional Description:

    C-reactive protein is an acute phase reactant used as a marker for inflammation.

  • Cretan diet

    Professional Description:

    The Cretan diet originates from Crete, Greece and is characterized by a high content of cereals, vegetables, legumes, fruits and olive oil. Like the Mediterranean diet, it contains less meat and more fish than Western diets and moderate intakes of wine.

  • Cronbach's alpha

    Professional Description:

    Cronbach's alpha is used to assess reliability of a survey. An acceptable Cronbach alpha (reliability) for a psychometric scale is 0.70. However, criterion can be lower if there are fewer than 10 items and evidence of validity and sound theoretical and practical reasoning for use is given.

  • Cronobacter spp.

    Professional Description:

    The proposed reclassification for Enterobacter sakazakii.

  • Crossover Study

    Professional Description:

    A method of comparing two (or more) treatments or interventions in which subjects, upon completion of one treatment, are switched to the other. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the patients are randomly allocated to receive these in the order “A first, then B,” and half to receive them in the order “B first, then A".

  • Cross-sectional Study

    Professional Description:

    The observation of a defined population at a single point in time or during a specific time interval. Exposure and outcome are determined simultaneously.

  • Cytokine

    Professional Description:

    Cytokines are non-antibody proteins released by one cell population on contact with a specific antigen. Cytokines act as intercellular mediators and trigger an immune response.