G

Select a term to view the definition:
  • Gastroesophageal reflux

    Professional Description:

    The passage of gastric contents into the esophagus. Most episodes are brief and asymptomatic and do not extend above the distal esophagus. GER is considered to be a normal physiologic process that occurs throughout the day in healthy infants, children, and adults.

  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Professional Description:

    Occurs when gastric contents reflux into the esophagus or oropharynx and produce symptoms including anorexia, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), odynophagia (painful swallowing), arching of the back during feedings, irritability, hematemesis, anemia or failure to thrive.

  • Gene

    Professional Description:

    The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA. Most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.

  • Gene expression

    Professional Description:

    The process of converting the information encoded in the DNA into RNA (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA); most genes are transcribed into mRNA and ultimately into a protein product.

  • Gene therapy

    Professional Description:

    The process of transferring a normal gene into an organism in order to replace or repair a malfunctioning gene; essentially changing the genetic makeup of an organism to improve its function.

  • Generalizability

    Professional Description:

    The degree to which the results of a study can be generalized to settings or samples other than the ones studied.

  • Genome scans meta analysis

    Professional Description:

    The GSMA method is a way to analyze separate but similar experiments from different researchers that involves pooling the data and using the pooled data to test the effectiveness of the results.

  • Genotype

    Professional Description:

    All or part of the genetic constitution of an individual or group.

  • German Commission E

    Professional Description:

    The German Federal Health Agency established the German Commission E, a regulatory body that evaluates the safety and efficacy of herbs on the basis of clinical trials, cases, and other scientific literature. The German Commission E has published more than 320 monograms on herbs and the American Botanical Council has translated the monograms into English.

  • Gestational Hypertension

    Professional Description:

    when elevated blood pressure without proteinuria develops after 20 weeks of gestation and blood pressure returns to normal within 12 weeks after delivery. One fourth of women with gestational hypertension develop proteinuria and thus progress to pre-eclampsia.

  • Glossitis

    Professional Description:

    Glossitis is a condition where the tongue is swollen, has a smooth surface (normally it is covered by small bumps called papillae), and feels sore or tender. The colour of the tongue can be paler than usual or bright red. There are many possible causes of glossitis, including allergies, very dry mouth (as in Sjogren syndrome), infection or injuries to the tongue. Glossitis can affect the ability to chew, swallow and talk. It generally resolves once the underlying cause is addressed.

  • Glucocorticoid

    Professional Description:

    Any of a group of corticosteroids that are involved especially in carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism, that tend to increase liver glycogen and blood sugar by increasing gluconeogenesis, that are anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive, and that are used widely in medicine (as in the alleviation of the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis).

  • GLUT-4

    Professional Description:

    Isoform of glucose transporter that is found in the sarcolemma of muscle fibers.

  • Glycemic Index

    Professional Description:

    The glycemic index (GI) is a scale used to rate the increase in blood glucose two hours after consuming a portion of a food containing 25 or 50 grams of available carbohydrate compared to a specific portion of a standard food (white bread or glucose). A low GI food, using the glucose scale, is defined as having a GI ≤55 and a high GI ≥70.

  • Glycemic Load

    Professional Description:

    The glycemic load (GL) is a measure that combines both the GI (quality) and the quantity of available carbohydrate in a given amount of food (i.e. GL = (GI of food x carbohydrate (g))/100 g or per 1000 kcal).

  • Glycogen

    Professional Description:

    A polymer of glucose used as a storage form of carbohydrate in the muscles and liver.

  • Goiter

    Professional Description:

    A goiter is an enlargement of the thyroid gland, which often results from insufficient intake of iodine and is usually accompanied by hypothyroidism. It is typically visible as a swelling of the anterior part of the neck. It can be associated with toxic symptoms and exophthalmos.

  • Gold Standard

    Professional Description:

    JAMA evidence. American Medical Association; 2014 Jun. Available from: http://www.jamaevidence.com/glossary.

  • Granulocyte

    Professional Description:

    White blood cell with a lobed nucleus, characterized by numerous granules within its cytoplasm.

  • Greene Climacteric Scale

    Professional Description:

    A validated tool used to measure 21 menopausal symptoms on a scale from 0 to 3; no symptoms to extreme symptoms. It provides a numerical score based on somatic, vasomotor and psychological symptoms associated with menopause.

  • Growth Factor

    Professional Description:

    When extrapolating downwards from an EAR for B vitamins for adults to an EAR for children, an increment is added to account for the requirements for growth. The percentage additional B vitamins and choline required for growth in children and adolescents of a given age is similar to the percentage additional protein required for growth at the same age.

  • guaiac test

    Professional Description:

    A test that detects the presence of hidden (occult) blood in the stool. The stool guaiac is the most common form of Fecal Occult Blood test (FOBT) in use today. Brand names include: Hemoccult, Hemoccult SENSA, ColoScreen, ColoScreen-ES, Seracult, and Seracult Plus®. Laboratory procedures may vary. A small sample of the stool is placed on a special paper card, pad or wipe containing guaiac (a leuco-dye) then a chemical developer solution is put on top of the sample. If the card, pad, or cloth turns blue, there is blood in the stool and the stool is consider guaiac-positive.

  • Guided interview

    Professional Description:

    Sometimes referred to as cognitive interview techniques involve asking informants specifically about each aspect of a resource material and asking informants to verbalize what comes to mind as they read/use a resource. Use the findings from these interviews to revise drafts of nutrition education resources.