P

Select a term to view the definition:
  • Paired Comparison

    Professional Description:

    A methodology which involves repeatedly presenting all pairs of stimuli (competencies) one at a time and asking which stimulus (competency) of the pair is preferred over the other.

  • Pancreatic Insufficiency

    Professional Description:

    Present in nearly 90% of patients with CF and characterized by a fecal elastase-1 concentration of less than or equal to 200 mcg/g of stool. Small intestinal transit in patients with PI can be accelerated by up to 50%, significantly decreasing available time for digestion and absorption. Enzyme replacement therapy can, to some extent, help to correct GI transit disturbances. Due to severe lipase and protease deficiency, unabsorbed lipid and protein reach the colon, potentially inducing steatorrhea and creatorrhea, respectively.

  • Pancytopenia

    Professional Description:

    A reduction in the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in the blood.

  • Para Thyroid Hormone

    Professional Description:

    A hormone of the parathyroid gland that regulates the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus in the body -- abbreviation PTH; called also parathormone

  • Parent training

    Professional Description:

    A behavioural counseling method where parents are guided through a series of techniques to improve their parenting skills, including positive reinforcement, role modeling and limit setting.

  • Partial breastmilk

    Professional Description:

    breastmilk, given by the mother, health care provider, or family member/supporter plus 3 or more feeds of any food or liquid including non-human milk, during the past 7 days.

  • Pasteurization

    Professional Description:

    Pasteurization is the heating of liquids to a prescribed temperature for a specified period of time to destroy disease-causing bacteria

  • Peak flow meter

    Professional Description:

    A portable, inexpensive, hand-held device used to measure how air flows from lungs in one "fast blast" to measure the ability to push air out of the lungs. Measurements with a peak flow meter help the patient and physician monitor asthma. These measurements can be important in helping a physician prescribe medicines to keep asthma in control.

  • Pearson's r

    Professional Description:

    The usual measure of correlation, sometimes called product-moment correlation

  • Perceivers

    Professional Description:

    People who adapt to changing circumstances, and those who postpone reaching closure to obtain more data.

  • Perennial rhinitis

    Professional Description:

    Non-seasonal inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose.

  • Periconceptional

    Professional Description:

    pertaining to the period before conception through to the first two months of pregnancy

  • Pernicious anemia

    Professional Description:

    A severe hyperchromic anemia marked by a progressive decrease in number and increase in size and hemoglobin content of the red blood cells and by pallor, weakness, and gastrointestinal and nervous disturbances and associated with reduced ability to absorb vitamin B12 due to the absence of intrinsic factor -- called also addisonian anemia

  • Pfeiffer's Mental Status Questionnaire

    Professional Description:

    an instrument used to detect the presence of intellectual impairment. A 10-item Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), easily administered by any clinician in the office or in a hospital, has been designed, tested, standardized and validated. The standardization and validation procedure included administering the test to 997 elderly persons residing in the community, to 141 elderly persons referred for psychiatric and other health and social problems to a multipurpose clinic, and to 102 elderly persons living in institutions such as nursing homes, homes for the aged, or state mental hospitals. It was found that educational level and race had to be taken into account in scoring individual performance. On the basis of the large community population, standards of performance were established for: 1) intact mental functioning, 2) borderline or mild organic impairment, 3) definite but moderate organic impairment, and 4) severe organic impairment. In the 141 clinic patients, the

  • P-Glycoprotein

    Professional Description:

    Is a plasma membrane-bound protein, a member of a larger family of efflux transporters encoded by multi-drug resistance genes, MDR1 or ABCB1. P-GP plays an important role in drug absorption and disposition, acting as a biological barrier by expelling toxins and xenobiotics from cells.

  • Pharmacogenomics

    Professional Description:

    The ability to use genetic information to design drugs that specifically target a susceptible protein or to classify a population into those who will respond to a particular drug and thereby benefit from its use, those who will experience side effects, and those for whom the drug will have no effect at all.

  • Phenotype

    Professional Description:

    The observable properties of an organism that are produced by the interaction of the genotype and the environment.

  • Physical activity

    Professional Description:

    Defined as bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that requires energy expenditure in excess of resting energy expenditure.

  • Phytate

    Professional Description:

    is a salt or ester of phytic acid. It is associated with dietary fiber and is present in a wide variety of plant foods, especially wheat bran, whole grains, seeds, and legumes.

  • Phytic acid

    Professional Description:

    is the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant tissues including seeds, cereal grains, legumes, and nuts and is abundant in bran. When ingested it binds with minerals such as zinc, calcium, and magnesium, interfering with their intestinal absorption.

  • Phytoestrogen

    Professional Description:

    A plant compound that has physiological properties similar to estrogen.

  • Pitch

    Professional Description:

    An angle encompassing a unique or interesting aspect or a story or a person used to catch the media's attention and to sell reporters on a particular story or interview.

  • Plain language

    Professional Description:

    An approach to writing that avoids complex language and complicated expressions. Often used in developing resources for low literacy audiences. Also referred to as "clear language".

  • Plants of the Apiaceae Family

    Professional Description:

    The family contains about 300 genera with around 3,000 species. Approximately 75 of these are cultivated plants Commonly consumed vegetables include: parsnip; carrot; celery; celeriac Commonly consumed spices/herbs include: Angelica, Anise Caraway, Celery Seed, Chervil; Coriander, Cumin, Dill, Fennel, Parsley, Sweet Cicily, Water Celery

  • Plants of the Rosaceae Family

    Professional Description:

    The Rosaceae are trees, shrubs and herbs comprising about 100 genera and 3,000 species. The Family Rosaceae dominates the temperate fruits, both in numbers and in importance. and brambles are fruits of plants in Rosaceae. The pome fruits include: apple & crabapple (Malus); chokeberry or cooking apple (Aronia; serviceberry or saskatoon (Amelanchier);Loquat (Eryobotrya japonica);Medlar (Mespilus germanica);Pear, European and Asian species (Pyrus);Quince (Cydonia oblonga and Chaenomeles);Rowan (Sorbus);Service tree (Sorbus domestica), bears a fruit known as a sorb or sorb apple;Rose-hip, the fruitlike base of roses (Rosa); used mostly for jams and herbal tea. The stone fruits, drupes of genus Prunus: Apricot (Prunus armeniaca or Armeniaca vulgaris); Cherry, sweet, sour, and wild species (Prunus avium, P. cerasus, and others); Plum, domestic and wild species; dried plums (prunes);Peach (of the normal and white variety) and its variant the nectarine (Prunus persica;Chokecherry (Pru

  • Plasma histamine levels

    Professional Description:

    The level of histamine in blood plasma can be measured by a variety of techniques. A “normal” level of histamine is always present in the body, which is required for various essential physiological processes. In an allergic reaction this level rises as histamine is released from mast cells during the process of IgE-mediated degranulation.

  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1

    Professional Description:

    An acute phase reactant involved in fibrinolysis. It has been found to be present in high levels in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. It is linked to the increased occurrence of thrombosis (blood clot formation) in individuals who are obese and/or have metabolic syndrome.

  • Pneumomediastinum

    Professional Description:

    Air in the mediastinum, the space in the middle of the chest.

  • Pneumothorax

    Professional Description:

    A collapsed lung.

  • Pollinosis

    Professional Description:

    The allergic reaction in the body to the air-borne pollen of plants, resulting in the seasonal type of hay fever

  • polycarbonate

    Professional Description:

    A widely used plastic that is made from bisphenol A. On bottles, its universal recycling code is listed under #7.

  • Polygenic

    Professional Description:

    A descriptive term of or relating to an inheritable characteristic that is influenced by several genes.

  • polyphenols

    Professional Description:

    General term for several groups of compounds found in plants that contain more than one benzene ring in their chemical structure. Several biologically important plant chemicals belong to this class including bioflavonoids and tannins. Many of these compounds function as effective antioxidants.

  • Pomelo/Pummelo

    Professional Description:

    An ancient ancestor of the common grapefruit, also know as a Chinese grapefruit.

  • Population Attributable Risk Percent

    Professional Description:

    Population attributable risk percent is the proportion of incidence of a disease that would be eliminated if the risk factor were eliminated.

  • Porcine Lipase

    Professional Description:

    The current standard for enzyme replacement therapy. They are enzymes derived from pork and are currently prepared with an enteric coating to protect them from the acidic gastric environment.

  • Post-operative ileus

    Professional Description:

    (POI) occurs after abdominal surgery and involves a transient cessation of bowel function. There may be a reduction in activity sufficient to prevent effective transit of intestinal contents. POI is caused by a complex interaction between inhibitory neural reflexes, neurotransmitters, inflammatory mediators, and endogenous and exogenous opioids and usually resolves within two to three days. It can cause patient discomfort, increase postoperative complications, negatively affects patient nutritional status, and increases length of stay.

  • Post-Translational Processing

    Professional Description:

    A process that inactive proteins go through after translation is complete to become active such as adding sugars to a protein or cleaving it into a smaller molecule.

  • Pouchitis

    Professional Description:

    Pouchitis is the inflammation of a surgically constructed ileal pouch (made from a loop of the small intestine), which acts as an artificial rectum for patients with ulcerative colitis who have had their rectum and colon removed. The surgical procedure is known as ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). Acute pouchitis typically refers to symptoms (e.g. diarrhea, cramping, fecal urgency or incontinence) lasting <4 weeks; whereas in chronic pouchitis symptoms typically are present for >4 weeks.

  • Prader-Willi syndrome

    Professional Description:

    A genetic disorder characterized by short stature, mental retardation, hypotonia, abnormally small hands and feet and uncontrolled appetite leading to extreme obesity.

  • Prebiotics

    Professional Description:

    Prebiotics are defined as a non-digestible food ingredients (dietary fibre) that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one of more limited number of bacteria in the colon and thus improve host health. For a food ingredient to be considered a prebiotic, it must meet several criteria. These criteria include: it must neither be hydrolysed, nor absorbed in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract; be selectively fermented by one or a limited number of potentially beneficial bacteria in the intestine; and it must be able to alter the colonic microflora towards a healthier composition.

  • Precede-Proceed Model

    Professional Description:

    helps determine a patient's needs within a given counselling context by assessing motivational characteristics, physical, manual and economic barriers and facilitators, and specific circumstantial rewards and penalties. The approach can avoid inappropriate techniques, for example trying to persuade an already-motivated patient that change is necessary. Skipping unnecessary steps frees time to focus on aspects of the knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and understanding that require modification.

  • Preceptee

    Professional Description:

    A participant in a program as an active learner and colleague.

  • Preceptor

    Professional Description:

    A teacher or instructor who provides practical experience and training to a student and evaluates student progress.

  • preceptoring

    Professional Description:

    The process of working with students for the purpose of training.

  • Predictive value of a tool

    Professional Description:

    it’s overall ability to predict correctly the presence or absence of nutritional risk

  • Predictive value theory

    Professional Description:

    The predictive value of a test is a measure of the times that the value (either positive or negative) is the true value; i.e. the percent of all positive tests that are true positives is the positive predictive value.

  • Predominant breastmilk

    Professional Description:

    breastmilk, given by the mother, health care provider, or family member/supporter plus 1 or a maximum of 2 feeds of any food or liquid including non-human milk, during the past 7 days.

  • Pre-eclampsia

    Professional Description:

    A condition in pregnancy manifested by hypertension, edema and/or proteinuria (excess protein in urine).

  • Pregnancy-Unique Quantification of Emesis (PUQE) scoring system

    Professional Description:

    a scoring system to quantify the severity of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.  Based on quantification of the three physical symptoms including nausea, vomiting and retching; PUQE closely correlates with the validated but much more complex Rhodes' score

  • Premature Infant

    Professional Description:

    An infant who is born before the 37th week of pregnancy.

  • Pressure ulcer

    Professional Description:

    A pressure ulcer is a localized injury to the skin and/or underlying tissue that is typically over a bony prominence resulting from pressure, or pressure in combination with shear and/or friction.

  • Prevalence

    Professional Description:

    The percentage of a defined population that is affected by a specific condition at the same time.

  • Prevalence of Nutrient Inadequacy

    Professional Description:

    The percentage of a population or group that has intakes below requirements.

  • Prick-by-prick test

    Professional Description:

    The prick-by-prick test involves insertion of a sterilized needle into the test food in its raw state. The food is then transferred to the patient by inserting the needle a little way into the skin. The same wheal and flare response as in the skin tests indicates a positive reaction

  • Prickly Pear Cactus

    Professional Description:

    Is also known as Nopal, is found throughout the Western hemisphere and is used commonly in Mexico. The used parts are the leaves, flowers, stems, and fruit.

  • Primary Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

    Professional Description:

    Primary prevention of CVD focuses on strategies to prevent CVD morbidity and mortality in healthy individuals.

  • Primary Care

    Professional Description:

    Primary care is the element within primary health care that focuses on health care services, including health promotion, illness and injury prevention, and the diagnosis and treatment of illness and injury. Primary care deals mainly with the prevention and treatment of sickness. It is what Canadians think of as front-line care, traditionally in the form of a visit to the family doctor. Primary care may involve immunization, preventative advice (stop smoking, get some exercise), diagnosis and treatment of illness, but it stops short of a comprehensive, intersectoral approach to producing or enhancing health. Perhaps most importantly, primary care is focused on individuals and families, but not the community as the unit of intervention.

  • primary dentition

    Professional Description:

    Teeth developed and erupted first in order of time; the first set of teeth to develop; the first baby teeth; they begin to erupt at about 6 months and consist of 20 teeth

  • Primary Health Care 

    Professional Description:

    Primary health care "is a comprehensive and egalitarian idea. It connects health and health care to social and economic organization. It is organized to meet the needs of everyone, but particularly disadvantaged populations. It strikes a balance between health promotion and health care; health and social services; individuals and communities. It entails the transfer of power from professionals to citizens and breaks down many of the traditional hierarchies within health care..." Primary health care is “a set of universally accessible first-level services that promote health, prevent disease and provide diagnostic, curative, rehabilitative, palliative and supportive services”. Primary health care "refers to an approach to health and a spectrum of services beyond the traditional health care system. It includes all services that play a part in health, such as income, housing, education, and environment”

  • Primary lactase deficiency

    Professional Description:

    A relative or absolute absence of the enzyme, lactase, that develops in childhood

  • Probability

    Professional Description:

    Risk or likelihood of an occurrence.

  • Probability Approach

    Professional Description:

    A method of assessing the nutrient adequacy of groups. It uses the distribution of usual intakes and the distribution of requirements to estimate the prevalence of inadequate intakes in a group. Also known as the NRC approach.

  • Probability of Inadequacy

    Professional Description:

    Outcome of a calculation that compares an individual's usual intake to the distribution of requirements for persons of the same life stage and gender to determine the probability that the individual's intake does not meet his or her requirements.

  • Probiotic

    Professional Description:

    Live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host.

  • Prodrome

    Professional Description:

    A technical term used by mental health professionals to describe a specific group of symptoms that may precede the onset of a mental illness.

  • Promoter Region

    Professional Description:

    A region in DNA that encodes regulatory sequences needed for gene transcription.

  • pro-oxidant

    Professional Description:

    A substance that causes oxidation and damage to cells and surrounding molecules. Some Antioxidants in very high doses can turn into pro-oxidants.

  • prospective epidemiologic studies

    Professional Description:

    A type of epidemiological studies designed to examine events from a point in time into the future. Epidemilogical studies are of two basic types depending on (a) whether the events have already happened (retrospective) or (b) whether the events may happen in the future (prospective). The most common studies are the retrospective studies which are also called case-control studies. A case-control study may begin when an outbreak of disease is noted and the causes of the disease are not known, or the disease is unusual within the population studied.

  • prostate specific antigen

    Professional Description:

    A single-chain glycoprotein with 240 amino acid residues and four carbohydrate side chains, found in normal seminal fluid and produced by the prostatic epithelial cells. Elevated levels in the blood are associated with prostatic enlargement and prostatic adenocarcinoma.

  • Protein-coding Region

    Professional Description:

    A region in DNA that dictates the genetic recipe which is used to produce the protein.

  • Proteolytic enzymes

    Professional Description:

    Enzymes that break down proteins

  • Prothrombin time

    Professional Description:

    The time it takes plasma to clot after an addition of tissue factor (obtained from animals) which measures the quality of the pathway of blood coagulation.

  • proton pump inhibitors

    Professional Description:

    The most powerful type of acid suppressors. These medications work by preventing acid pumps in the stomach from producing too much acid. Also known as acid pump inhibitors.

  • Psychrophilic Bacteria

    Professional Description:

    Bacteria capable of thriving at a relatively low temperature.

    Consumer Description:

  • Public Service Announcements

    Professional Description:

    Advertising with a message in the interest of the public, usually run free of charge at the station's discretion.

  • Pulque

    Professional Description:

    mildly alcoholic beverage (4-6% ethanol by volume) that is consumed at meals.