S

Select a term to view the definition:
  • Salba®

    Professional Description:

    A gluten-free whole grain which is white in colour. It is obtained from the original herbaceous plant Salvia hispanica L., which is over 90 per cent black grain in colour and 10 per cent white grain (1). Salvia hispanica L. is also known as chia.

  • Salt Sensitive

    Professional Description:

    Salt sensitivity is expressed as either the reduction in blood pressure in response to a lower salt intake or the rise in blood pressure in response to sodium loading. Salt sensitivity differs among subgroups of the population and among individuals within a subgroup.

  • Sarcopenia

    Professional Description:

    Sarcopenia refers to a decline in muscle mass and strength.

  • Sarcopenic Obesity

    Professional Description:

    Sarcopenic obesity refers to a combination of sarcopenia and excess body fat.

  • SCORAD Index

    Professional Description:

    Severity Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis. Physician evaluation of atopic dermatitis based on extent of skin covered, intensity and subjective score of pruritis (itching) and loss of sleep. Mild AD <25; moderate 25-50; severe >50.

  • SCREEN©

    Professional Description:

    A screening index designed and validated by Prof. Heather Keller consisting of 15 questions covering issues that influence the nutritional health of seniors.

  • Screening Administrator

    Professional Description:

    Any person who assists in the process of administering and collecting information related to the administration of your screening initiative. This includes collection of the nutritional risk data, demographic information and potentially data for evaluation.

  • Seafood

    Professional Description:

    Any edible animal obtained from the sea, including fish, crustaceans, and molluscs.

  • Secondary Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

    Professional Description:

    Application of interventions to prevent the progression of cardiovascular disease in individuals with a history of CVD and individuals at high CVD risk (as determined by Cardiovascular Risk Assessment) or those with metabolic syndrome presenting with a constellation of risk factors including abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and/or impaired glucose tolerance. To view Cardiovascular Risk Assessment, use the search function in PEN.

  • Secondary lactase deficiency

    Professional Description:

    A lactase deficiency that results from small intestinal injury including acute chemotherapy, gastroenteritis, persistent diarrhea or small bowel overgrowth.

  • Selection bias

    Professional Description:

    A bias that may occur in research when the criteria used to recruit and enroll participants in different cohorts is inconsistent.

  • Selenocysteine

    Professional Description:

    Selenocysteine is the form of selenium that has biological activity in humans and is present in a number of selenoproteins. A selenoprotein is a protein that contains selenium in stoichiometric amounts.

  • Self monitoring

    Professional Description:

    Keeping detailed records of situations where unhealthy behaviours occur. Details of the precipitants, consequences and moderating factors are recorded and analyzed to determine goals for change.

  • Sensitivity

    Professional Description:

    The sensitivity of a scale or index refers to the statistical likelihood that it will correctly identify individuals with the condition of interest. In the case of nutritional screening, the higher the sensitivity of the index the more likely it will correctly identify individuals who are genuinely "at risk". If an index is 100% sensitive there would be no false negatives. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Section 2: Morbidity frequency measures. In Principles of Epidemiology in Public Health Practice. 3rd Edition. 2012. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/csels/dsepd/ss1978/lesson3/section2.html Last JM. A dictionary of epidemiology. 4th Edition. New York: Oxford University Press; 2001.

  • Sensors

    Professional Description:

    People who are practical, detail-oriented and focus on facts and procedures.

  • Serum Fructosamine

    Professional Description:

    is a measure of glycemic control over a period of two to three weeks. It can be used if one needs to see the average glycemic control more quickly.

  • Severe Hypoglycemia

    Professional Description:

    Associated with need for assistance to treat and BG level < 2.8 mmo/L.

  • Severe Pre-eclampsia

    Professional Description:

    Blood pressure: 160 mm Hg or higher systolic or 110 mm Hg or higher diastolic on two occasions at least 6 hours apart in a woman on bed rest / Proteinuria: 5 g or higher in a 24-hour urine collection or 3+ on urine dipstick testing of two random urine samples collected at least 4 hours apart / Other features: oliguria (less than 500 mL in 24 hours), cerebral or visual disturbances, pulmonary edema or cyanosis, epigastric or right upper-quadrant pain, elevated liver enzymes, thrombocytopenia, or intrauterine growth restriction.

  • Short chain fatty acid

    Professional Description:

    End product of bacterial hydrolysis and fermentation of complex carbohydrate that reaches the colon.

  • Shuttle run test

    Professional Description:

    Also commonly known as the beep test, requires the participant to run back and forth over a 20 meter marked distance in time with recorded beeps until they fail to reach the mark at the “beep” on a certain (usually three) consecutive laps or shuttles.

  • Shwachman score

    Professional Description:

    An overall clinical scoring system in CF, where an increase in the score indicates improvement in clinical conditions.

  • Significant Ethnic Effect

    Professional Description:

    A result which indicates that one of the ethnic groups’ preferences for a competency differed significantly from the average preference for that competency across all three ethnic groups.

  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

    Professional Description:

    A genetic variation caused by a change in a single DNA nucleotide; most of the variation among individuals results from SNPs. The number of different SNPs in the human population is thought to be 6 million.

  • Sizeism

    Professional Description:

    Sizeism is being discriminated against because of one’s body size (height or weight).

  • Skewed Distribution

    Professional Description:

    If the distribution of requirements is skewed, the median will not equal the mean.

  • Skin exposure

    Professional Description:

    means exposure of skin, face and arms or an equivalent surface area of skin. The time involved is five to 15 minutes per day in summer months for people with light skin colour.

  • Skin Prick Test

    Professional Description:

    The skin test is designed to detect any IgE that has been made by the immune system in a previous response to the allergen. A drop of commercial allergen extract is placed onto the surface and the skin underneath is pricked with a lancet.

  • Skin rash

    Professional Description:

    A lay term for a skin eruption.

  • Skin testing

    Professional Description:

    The skin test is a method of measuring the patient's level of IgE antibodies to specific allergens. Using diluted solutions of specific allergens, the physician either injects the patient with the solutions (intradermal test), or scratches (scratch test) or pricks the skin with a sharp lancet (prick test) through the allergen drop. A positive reaction appears as a small raised area surrounded by a flat red area on the skin (the wheal and flare reaction). A positive reaction to the skin test, especially with food allergens, does not always mean that the patient is will develop symptoms when the food is eaten.

  • Slow release

    Professional Description:

    When a vitamin or mineral has a time-release factor, it means that the ingredients have been scientifically coated and calibrated in tiny "memory granules" that are released over a period of 2-6 hours. The advantage of time release is it gives the body the vitamin or mineral gradually instead of all at one time.

  • Social Cognitive Theory

    Professional Description:

    The SCT defines human behavior as a reciprocal interaction of personal factors, behaviour, and the environment

  • Social Desirability Bias

    Professional Description:

    "Study participants misrepresent their responses in the direction of answers consistent with prevailing social norms or socially desirable behavior rather than their true feelings." Source: Grimm P. Social desirability bias. Wiley International Encyclopedia of Marketing; 2010. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9781444316568.wiem02057/references.

  • Social Justice

    Professional Description:

    Social justice is having equal distribution of personal opportunities and social privileges.

  • Social Marketing

    Professional Description:

    the application of commercial marketing concepts and techniques to target populations to achieve the goal of positive social change.

  • Soiling

    Professional Description:

    involuntary passage of stool into places, and at times, that are socially inappropriate. It is often associated with fecal impaction.

  • Soluble Fibre

    Professional Description:

    Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion which slows digestion. Soluble fiber is found in oat bran, barley, nuts, seeds, beans, lentils, peas, and some fruits and vegetables.

  • Spearman rank

    Professional Description:

    Spearman rank correlation coefficient is usually calculated on occasions when it is not convenient, economic, or even possible to give actual values to variables, but only to assign a rank order to instances of each variable. It may also be a better indicator that a relationship exists between two variables when the relationship is non-linear

  • Specificity

    Professional Description:

    The specificity of a scale or index refers to the statistical likelihood that it will correctly identify individuals who do not have the condition of interest. In the case of nutritional screening, the higher the specificity of the index the more likely it will correctly identify individuals who are genuinely not "at risk". If an index is 100% specific there would be no false positives.

  • Spermatozoa

    Professional Description:

    The male gamete or sex cell that contains the genetic information to be transmitted by the male and is able to effect zygosis with an oocyte.

  • Splanchnic blood flow

    Professional Description:

    Blood flow through major vessels

  • Splinter hemorrhage

    Professional Description:

    Multiple tiny longitudinal subungual hemorrhages under a finger or a toenail.

  • Sputum

    Professional Description:

    Mucus and other matter that is brought up from the lungs by coughing.

  • Stakeholders

    Professional Description:

    Individuals or groups providing support and services to seniors in any community.

  • Standard Deviation

    Professional Description:

    Standard deviation is the statistical measure of variability used in describing normal distribution.

  • Standard Deviation of the Difference

    Professional Description:

    The standard deviation of a distribution is simply the square root of the variance. This is used when we need to know how much the difference between two numbers can vary. For example, we recognize that estimates of both requirement and intake can vary and thus the difference between the two numbers can also vary. We need to know how much this difference could vary - this is the standard deviation of the difference.

  • Standard self management diabetes education

    Professional Description:

    Diabetes education to support self managment which may include tools such as blood glucose monitoring, medication delivery, discussion of treatment targets, carbohydrate counting, menu planning and exercise. These tools do not include education techniques that use the internet as a mode of delivery.

  • Status asthmaticus

    Professional Description:

    A particularly severe episode of asthma, usually requiring hospitalization, that does not respond adequately to ordinary therapeutic measures

  • Steatorrhea

    Professional Description:

    An abnormal amount of fat in the feces. Normal fecal fat excretion is ≤7 g/day. In CF, the treatment goal for steatorrhea is to attain a fecal fat excretion rate of <15 g/day. Steatorrhea is associated with an increased risk for malabsorption of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K.

  • Stimulus control

    Professional Description:

    The process of identifying and modifying stimuli (e.g. situations, times, people, emotions) that elicit unhealthy eating behaviour.

  • Stomatitis

    Professional Description:

    Stomatitis is an inflammation of the mucosal lining of the mouth. There are many possible causes, including infections (bacterial, fungal, or viral), vitamin deficiencies, lead and mercury poisoning and local irritation or trauma (such as from cheek biting, or poorly fitting dentures). It can also be a side-effect of radiation or chemotherapy for cancer. Stomatitis generally resolves once the underlying cause is addressed.

  • Streptococci mutans

    Professional Description:

    The major contributor to tooth decay. S. mutans can grow under conditions that would kill other bacteria. S. mutans is foudn mostly on tooth surfaces. One tooth may have a large number of these bacteria, while the tooth next to it may have only a small number. The bacteria are most concentrated int he crevices, pits and fissues that are a normal part of the tteth and surrounding structures.

  • Stress Factor

    Professional Description:

    The measured energy expenditure divided by the predicted energy expenditure.

  • Success indicators

    Professional Description:

    Success indicators are measures that link directly to the success of a project.

  • Summative evaluation

    Professional Description:

    Evaluation occurring at the end of learning experiences or programs. In the context of preceptoring, to assess student completion of learning activities and performance objectives.

  • Survey

    Professional Description:

    "Observational study that focuses on obtaining information about activities, beliefs, preferences, knowledge, or attitudes from respondents through interviewer-administered or self-administered methods." Source: JAMA evidence. American Medical Association; 2014 Jun. Available from: http://www.jamaevidence.com/glossary.

  • Susceptibility Genes

    Professional Description:

    Genes with functional variants that affect the causes of disease, they are routinely being identified for simple mendelian (inherited) diseases and more common genetic disorders.

  • Symmetrical Distribution

    Professional Description:

    If the distribution of requirements is symmetrical, the median is equal to the mean.

  • Synbiotic

    Professional Description:

    A mixture of prebiotics and probiotics that beneficially effect the host by improving the survival and implantation of live microbial dietary supplements in the gastrointestinal tract by selectively stimulating the growth and/or by activating the metabolism of one or a limited number of health-promoting bacteria, and thus improving host welfare.

  • Synovial fluid

    Professional Description:

    Clear viscid lubricating fluid of the joint, bursae, and tendon sheaths, secreted by the synovial membrane of a joint. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and electrolytes.

  • Synovitis

    Professional Description:

    An inflammation of a synovial membrane, which is a layer of connective tissue that lines a joint, such as a hip, knee or shoulder.

  • Systematic Review

    Professional Description:

    A form of structure literature review that addresses a question that is formulated to be answered by analysis of evidence, and involves objective means of searching the literature, applying predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria to this literature, critically appraising the relevant literature, and extraction and synthesis of data from evidence base to formulate findings. Source: JAMAevidence. Glossary. American Medical Association: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.; 2014. Available from: http://www.jamaevidence.com/glossary Health Evidence. Glossary. 2019. [cited 2019 Nov 4]. Available from: https://www.healthevidence.org/glossary.aspx Paré G, Kitsiou S. Chapter 9: Methods for literature reviews. In: Handbook of eHealth Evaluation: An Evidence-based Approach [Internet]. 2016. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK481583/

  • Systolic Blood Pressure

    Professional Description:

    Blood pressure is a measurement of the force applied to the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood through the body. The pressure is determined by the force and amount of blood pumped, and the size and flexibility of the arteries. Blood pressure readings are usually given as 2 numbers: for example, 110 over 70 (written as 110/70). The first number is the systolic blood pressure reading, and it represents the maximum pressure exerted when the heart contracts. The second number is the diastolic blood pressure reading, and it represents the pressure in the arteries when the heart is at rest.