N

Select a term to view the definition:
  • N of 1 Randomized Controlled Trials

    Professional Description:

    A single participant undertakes pairs of treatment periods in which they receive target treatment during one period of each pair and a placebo or alternative treatment during the other period. Patients and clinicians are blind to allocation, the order of the target and control is randomized.

  • nadir

    Professional Description:

    The lowest blood glucose concentration on the curve.

  • National Academy of Sciences

    Professional Description:

    The NAS is an American private non-profit society of scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the advancement of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare of the public. The Academy's mandate requires it to advise the U.S. federal government on scientific and technical matters.

  • National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Professional Description:

    National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a survey conducted periodically by the National Center for Health Statistics, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

  • Natural Health Product

    Professional Description:

    In Canada the term "Natural Health Product" is used to refer to certain vitamins, minerals, herbal products, as well as several other items. In the United States the term "Dietary Supplement" is used rather than NHP. It is described by the U.S. Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 as: products made of one or more of the essential nutrients, such as vitamins, minerals and protein, herbs or other botanicals and any dietary substance that can be used to supplement the diet.

  • Natural Health Products regulations

    Professional Description:

    In Canada the National Health Products Directorate (NHPD), Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada, govern the Natural Health Products regulations. The role of the NHPD is to ensure that Canadians have access to natural health products that are safe, effective, and of high quality. New Canadian Natural Health Products Regulations came into force on January 1st, 2004 with a transition period of up to six years, to December 31st, 2009. Until 2009, the sales of NHPs will remain somewhat uncontrolled and unregulated, as long as the label contains no health claims. Many products now found in health food stores do not meet the new regulations. At the end of the 6 year transition period all NHPs, which have met the regulations, will have a natural product number (NPN) issued. In the previous Food and Drug Regulations, some products were issued a drug identification number (DIN) The manufacturers of these products will also need to apply for a product license number. The new regulatio

  • Natural Product Number

    Professional Description:

    Natural Product Number is an eight (8) digit numerical code assigned to each natural health product approved to be marketed under the Natural Health Products Regulations.

  • negative correlation

    Professional Description:

    A relationship between two factors (called variables) where a positive change of one creates a negative change of the second.

  • Neural Tube Defects

    Professional Description:

    The neural tube is the tube that forms from fusion of the neural folds from which the brain and spinal cord arise. Defects can occur during development of the brain and spinal cord eg. spina bifida

  • Neuroglycopenic Symptoms

    Professional Description:

    Symptoms manifested as a result of decreased glucose to the brain: difficulty concentrating, confusion, weakness, drowsiness, vision changes, difficulty speaking, headache, dizziness and tiredness.

  • Neuropsychology

    Professional Description:

    A branch of clinical psychology that studies how the brain and nervous system work together to affect daily human functioning.

  • Neutrophil

    Professional Description:

    Neutrophil is a white blood cell that acts primarily to fight infections.

  • News Conference

    Professional Description:

    Prearranged gather of media representatives to announce and explain a significant and newsworthy subject or event.

  • News Release

    Professional Description:

    The most common written form used in public relations, announcing a client's news and information.

  • Newsworthy

    Professional Description:

    information that is new, unusual, unexpected, controversial or of wide significance or interest to the audience of a publication or program.

  • NHIS

    Professional Description:

    National Health Interview Survey, a survey conducted periodically by the National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services.

  • Niacin Equivalent (NE)

    Professional Description:

    1 mg of "niacin equivalent (NE)" = 60 mg of tryptophan and 1 mg of preformed niacin.

  • No breastmilk

    Professional Description:

    the infant/child receives no breastmilk

  • NOAEL

    Professional Description:

    A NOAEL is the No Observed Adverse Effects Level, which would be the highest observed level of chronic intake that was NOT associated with development of the adverse effect in any of the individuals studied.

  • Nocturnal Hypoglycemia

    Professional Description:

    Hypoglycemic episodes that first occur during the night, usually defined as the period between midnight and 8 AM.

  • Nominal Data/Scales

    Professional Description:

    This allows subjects to be classified with respect to some characteristic—pairs of categorical variables can be cross-classified to form a contingency table. Properties of a nominal scale: 1. Data categories are mutually exclusive (an individual can belong to only one category). 2. Data categories have no logical order – numbers may be assigned to categories but merely as convenient labels. A nominal scale classifies without the categories being ordered.

  • Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

    Professional Description:

    This represents a continuous spectrum of liver disease that includes hepatic steatosis (fatty liver) with and without inflammation and fibrosis. Individuals with hepatic steatosis in the presence of inflammation and fibrosis have non-alcoholic steatohepatits (NASH). NAFLD is considered to represent the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome in adults and children.

  • non modifiable risk factors

    Professional Description:

    factors which increase risk of a certain disease or disorder that are beyond the control of the individual. They include age, gender, ethnicity, family history

  • Non-functional iron

    Professional Description:

    storage iron, found mainly in the liver, spleen, muscle or bone marrow. Ferritin is the major form of storage iron (95%), with the balance being hemosiderin.

  • Nonradical Reactive Species

    Professional Description:

    A term used to describe substances that do not contain an unpaired electron, but are nevertheless highly reactive. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 or HOOH) and lipid peroxides (LOOH) are examples of nonradical reactive oxygen species. These compounds, however, can react to form free radicals. For example, hydrogen peroxide can react with the superoxide radical to form water, oxygen and the hydroxyl radical.

  • Normal Distribution

    Professional Description:

    When values are normally distributed the shape of the distribution will be symmetrical and will have a specific "bell" shape, with 95% of all values falling within 2 standard deviations of the mean.

  • Normocytic

    Professional Description:

    Characterized by red blood cells that are normal in size and usually also in hemoglobin content

  • NRC

    Professional Description:

    National Research Council, the organization arm of the National Academies

  • Number Needed to Treat

    Professional Description:

    The number of patients who need to be treated over a specific period of time to achieve one additional good outcome. When discussing NNT, it is important to specify the intervention, its duration, and the good outcome. It is the inverse of the absolute risk reduction (1/ARR).

  • Nutraceuticals

    Professional Description:

    Purified or isolated natural health products in medicinal form. For example, genistein isolated from fermented soy meal and sold in tablet form as a soy dietary supplement.

  • Nutramigen

    Professional Description:

    A hypoallergenic formula that contains extensively hydrolyzed or broken down casein. Originally intended for the treatment of food allergy in infants, it is also used for the prevention of allergy in high risk infants.

  • Nutrient Panels

    Professional Description:

    The nutrient panels are composed of scientists who are experts on one or more of the nutrients addressed by a panel.

  • Nutrient Requirement

    Professional Description:

    The lowest continuing intake level of a nutrient that will maintain a defined level of nutriture in a healthy individual; also called individual requirement.

  • Nutrigenetics

    Professional Description:

    is how genetic variations modify an individual’s response to diet. Nutrigenetics is concerned with the effects of individual genetic variation (single nucleotide polymorphisms) on response to diet, which will progress towards making personalized dietary recommendations. The term ‘nutrigenomics’ is often used in place of ‘nutrigenetics’, which can be confusing.

  • Nutrigenomics

    Professional Description:

    The relationship between specific nutrients or diet on gene expression that will facilitate prevention of diet-related common diseases. ''Nutrigenomics'' and ''Nutritional Genomics'' are both used as umbrella terms describing the interface between the nutritional environment and cellular / genetic processes. The term ''nutrigenomics'' is often used in place of ''nutrigenetics'' as well, which can be confusing.

  • Nutrition Counselling

    Professional Description:

    Nutrition counselling is a targeted dietary intervention wherein counselling has clear goals that are understood to have prescribed nutritive content and a timetable. This involves in-depth assessment, health education, and behavioural counselling to develop skills and motivation to undertake the specific diet and exercise changes with follow-up evaluation. Usually it occurs over several encounters. Counselling is usually directed to individuals, and may be directed at addressing any of health promotion, disease prevention and/or disease treatment strategies.

  • Nutrition Screening

    Professional Description:

    The process of identifying characteristics known to be associated with dietary or nutritional problems. Its purpose is to differentiate individuals who are at high risk of nutritional problems or have poor nutritional status.

  • Nutrition Service Record

    Professional Description:

    An information management document containing demographics, record of nutritional risk information, referral and follow-up services offered. Useful in evaluation process during and at completion of initiative.

  • Nutritional Status

    Professional Description:

    Condition of an individual or group resulting from nutrient intake and utilization of a nutrient at the tissue level.

  • nutritionally-at-risk

    Professional Description:

    According to ASPEN guidelines, adults are considered at nutritional risk if they have any of the following: -actual or potential for developing malnutrition (involuntary loss or gain of ≥10% of usual body weight within six months or ≥ 5% of usual body weight in one month, a weight of 20% over or under ideal weight) -altered diets or diet schedules (receiving parenteral nutrition or enteral nutrition, recent surgery, illness or trauma) -inadequate nutrition intake, including not receiving food or nutrition products (impaired ability to ingest or absorb food adequately) for more than seven days