D

Select a term to view the definition:
  • Decision Analysis

    Professional Description:

    A systematic approach to decision making under conditions of uncertainty. It involves identifying all available alternatives and estimating the probabilities of potential outcomes associated with each alternative, valuing each outcome, and, on the basis of the probabilities and values, arriving at a quantitative estimate of the relative merit of the alternatives.

  • Deft Index

    Professional Description:

    Dmft or deft index is a count of decayed, missing or filled teeth with a maximum score of 20.

  • Dehydration

    Professional Description:

    Dehydration is the depletion in total body water content due to pathologic water losses, diminished water intake or a combination of both.

  • Descriptive Study

    Professional Description:

    A study that describes characteristics of a sample of individuals. Unlike an experimental study, the investigators do not actively intervene to test a hypothesis, but merely describe the health status or characteristics of a sample from a defined population.

  • Detection Bias

    Professional Description:

    Tendency to look more carefully for an outcome in one of the comparison groups (also known as surveillance bias).

  • Development Coordination Disorder

    Professional Description:

    Development Coordination Disorder is associated commonly with difficulties in learning, behavior, and psychosocial adjustment, in addition to core deficits in motor function.

  • Diabetic ketoacidosis

    Professional Description:

    Diabetic ketoacidosis is a very serious condition which results in alterations in pH and electrolyte balance leading to acidosis and dehydration caused by a lack or relative deficiency of insulin.

  • Diarrhea

    Professional Description:

    Diarrhea is frequent and watery bowel movements; commonly qualified as the passage of three or more loose or watery stools/day.

  • Dietary fibre

    Professional Description:

    A collective term for a variety of plant substances that are resistant to digestion by human gastrointestinal enzymes.

  • Dietary Reference Intakes

    Professional Description:

    An "umbrella" term for four nutrient-based reference values that are used to assess and plan the diets of healthy people. The reference values include: the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), the Adequate Intake (AI) and the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). Relevant to U.S.A. and Canada only.

  • Dietary Reference Standards

    Professional Description:

    Dietary Reference Standards are nutrient intake values established as goals for individuals or groups for good nutrition and health.

  • Dietary status

    Professional Description:

    The condition of an individual or group as a result of food and nutrient intake. Dietary status also refers to the sum of dietary intake measurements for an individual or a group.

  • Dietitian

    Professional Description:

    A regulated dietitian has the following titles and credentials: Australia and New Zealand: Accredited Practising Dietitian (APD) Canada: Registered Dietitian (RD) in all provinces, except Quebec (P.Dt.) New Zealand: New Zealand Registered Dietitian (NZRD) United Kingdom: Registered Dietitian (RD) and HCPC Registered.

  • Disinhibition

    Professional Description:

    The tendency to overeat in response to different stimuli.

  • Distribution of observed intakes

    Professional Description:

    The distribution of observed intakes represents the variability of observed intakes in the population of interest.

  • Distribution of Requirements

    Professional Description:

    The distribution of requirements reflects the individual-to-individual (between person) variability in requirements. Variability exists because not all individuals in a group have the same requirements for a nutrient, even if they are similar in characteristics such as age and sex.

  • Distribution of usual intakes

    Professional Description:

    The distribution of usual intakes is the long-run average nutrient intakes of individuals in the population. The distribution should reflect only the individual-to-individual (between-person) variability in intakes. Statistical procedures may be used to adjust the distribution of observed intakes by partially removing the day-to-day variability in individual intakes, so the adjusted distribution more closely resembles a usual intake distribution. Sometimes referred to as the "usual intake distribution".

  • Dose-response assessment

    Professional Description:

    Dose-response assessment is the second step in a risk assessment in which the relationship between nutrient intake and adverse effect (in terms of incidence and/or severity of the effect) is determined.

  • Double-Blind

    Professional Description:

    A procedure of blind assignment to study and control groups and blind assessment of outcome, designed to ensure that ascertainment of outcome is not biased by knowledge of the group to which an individual was assigned. Double refers to both parties –the subjects in the study and control groups, and the observer(s) in contact with the subjects; those describing a randomized controlled trial should provide a specific description of who among those involved in the trial were blinded.

  • Doubly-labelled water

    Professional Description:

    Doublly-labelled water is a form of indirect calorimetry where the average metabolic rate is measured over a period of time. This process is done by administering a dose of doubly-labelled water (water in which both the hydrogen and the oxygen have been partly or completely replaced with an uncommon isotope), then tracking the loss of deuterium and O-18 in the subject, over time, through the use of regular sampling of heavy isotope concentrations in the body water (by sampling saliva, urine, or blood).

  • Drug Identification Number

    Professional Description:

    Drug Identification Number is an eight-digit (8) numerical code assigned to each drug product marketed under or in accordance with the Food and Drugs Act and Food and Drug Regulations of Health Canada.

  • Dysphagia

    Professional Description:

    Difficulty swallowing